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Where to start understanding chemical principles of human body?

Where to start understanding chemical principles of human body?


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I have no background in chemistry.

What is a good way to start understanding principles of human body - how it works, determine which meals are good or bad for health. Maybe it is not just chemistry, but some other fields, too. I just want to know how human body works, lets say - improve health - but on my own. Knowing just that this is not good for health is not enough for me. I want to build deep knowledge.

I want to know how it is functioning at the lower level (based on chemistry).

Where to start?

(sorry for my incompetence)


If you want to start from the chemistry upwards I'd recommend you to either look into a biochemistry textbook (buy or borrow one/get a used one, since they are quite expensive) or look for some (online) courses in that field.

The textbooks I know from university studies are:

  • Biochemistry (Stryer, Berg, Tymoczko) [possibly downlaodable from here]
  • Biochemistry (Voet & Voet)
  • Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry (Cox, Nelson)

The MIT offers quite a few (free!) online courses and there seem to be quite a number of biochemistry ones (I haven't looked into any of them, but I reckon the MIT courses aren't too bad).


Nicolai offered book (and other ressource) recommendations in biochemistry (+1). However, you might want to start with some very introductory general biology. For this purpose the Campbell Biology book is one of the best.

You can find the 11th edition here on Amazon.ca but it is quite pricy but if you can accept a slightly older edition (that will still teach you a lot) such as this one, then you can get away for much cheaper.


Chemical and Physical Foundations of Biological Systems Section: Overview

The Chemical and Physical Foundations of Biological Systems section asks you to solve problems by combining your knowledge of chemical and physical foundational concepts with your scientific inquiry and reasoning skills. This section tests your understanding of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of human tissues, organs, and organ systems. It also tests your knowledge of the basic chemical and physical principles that underlie the mechanisms operating in the human body and your ability to reason about and apply your understanding of these basic chemical and physical principles to living systems.
This section is designed to:

  • test introductory-level biology, organic and inorganic chemistry, and physics concepts
  • test biochemistry concepts at the level taught in many colleges and universities in first-semester biochemistry courses
  • test molecular biology topics at the level taught in many colleges and universities in introductory biology sequences and first-semester biochemistry courses
  • test basic research methods and statistics concepts described by many baccalaureate faculty as important to success in introductory science courses and
  • require you to demonstrate your scientific inquiry and reasoning, research methods, and statistics skills as applied to the natural sciences.


During the actual exam, you will have access to the periodic table while answering questions in this section of the exam.
Exam content will draw from*:
Discipline:

  • First-semester biochemistry, 25%
  • Introductory biology, 5%
  • General chemistry, 30%
  • Organic chemistry, 15%
  • Introductory physics, 25%

Scientific Inquiry and Reasoning Skill:


*These percentages have been approximated to the nearest 5% and will vary from one test to another for a variety of reasons. These reasons include, but are not limited to, controlling for question difficulty, using groups of questions that depend on a single passage, and using unscored field-test questions on each test form.


Contents

Biological engineering is a science-based discipline founded upon the biological sciences in the same way that chemical engineering, electrical engineering, and mechanical engineering [7] can be based upon chemistry, electricity and magnetism, and classical mechanics, respectively. [8]

Before WWII, biological engineering had begun being recognized as a branch of engineering, and was a new concept to people. Post-WWII, it grew more rapidly, and the term "bioengineering" was coined by British scientist and broadcaster Heinz Wolff in 1954 at the National Institute for Medical Research. Wolff graduated that year and became the director of the Division of Biological Engineering at the university. This was the first time Bioengineering was recognized as its own branch at a university. Electrical engineering was the early focus of this discipline, due to work with medical devices and machinery during this time. [9]

When engineers and life scientists started working together, they recognized that the engineers didn't know enough about the actual biology behind their work. To resolve this problem, engineers who wanted to get into biological engineering devoted more time to studying the processes of biology, psychology, and medicine. [10]

More recently, the term biological engineering has been applied to environmental modifications such as surface soil protection, slope stabilization, watercourse and shoreline protection, windbreaks, vegetation barriers including noise barriers and visual screens, and the ecological enhancement of an area. Because other engineering disciplines also address living organisms, the term biological engineering can be applied more broadly to include agricultural engineering.

The first biological engineering program in the United States was started at University of California, San Diego in 1966. [11] More recent programs have been launched at MIT [12] and Utah State University. [13] Many old agricultural engineering departments in universities over the world have re-branded themselves as agricultural and biological engineering or agricultural and biosystems engineering. According to Professor Doug Lauffenburger of MIT, [12] [14] biological engineering has a broad base which applies engineering principles to an enormous range of size and complexities of systems, ranging from the molecular level (molecular biology, biochemistry, microbiology, pharmacology, protein chemistry, cytology, immunology, neurobiology and neuroscience) to cellular and tissue-based systems (including devices and sensors), to whole macroscopic organisms (plants, animals), and even to biomes and ecosystems.

The average length of study is three to five years, and the completed degree is signified as a bachelor of engineering (B.S. in engineering). Fundamental courses include thermodynamics, biomechanics, biology, genetic engineering, fluid and mechanical dynamics, kinetics, electronics, and materials properties. [15] [16]

Depending on the institution and particular definitional boundaries employed, some major branches of bioengineering may be categorized as (note these may overlap):


BIOL - Biology

The "biology" of humans is a study of the organization of the human body, how it works, and what the human needs to stay alive and reproduce. Throughout the course, the focus is on various topics of interest to the college student: e.g., fitness, stress, current discoveries, AIDS. Intended for non-majors. Laboratory is included. Offered in the fall semester. GCP Coding: (PNW) (CRI)

BIOL 1020 Biology of Animals (3) BIOL 1021 Biology of Animals: Lab (1)

Introduces the fascinating world of animals, from the tiny water flea to the elephant. Examines the challenges in their lives and the ways they meet them, including the search for food sources and shelter, reproduction, and internal stability. Laboratory required. Intended for non-majors. Offered in the fall semester. Co-requisites: BIOL 1020 and BIOL 1021 must be taken concurrently. GCP Coding for BIOL 1020: (PNW) (CRI)

BIOL 1030 Biology of Plants (3) BIOL 1031 Biology of Plants: Lab (1)

Examines plant growth and development, from seed to flower. Plant diversity and ancient and modern uses will be studied, along with care of common garden and household plants. Laboratory required. Intended for non-majors. Offered in the spring semester. Co-requisites: BIOL 1030 and BIOL 1031 must be taken concurrently. GCP Coding for BIOL 1030: (PNW) (OCOM)

BIOL 1040 Human Genetics (3)

Introduces DNA, along with the structure and function of human chromosomes and how hereditary traits are passed on. Emphasis on new findings and technologies. Intended for non-majors. Laboratory included. Offered in the spring semester. GCP Coding: (PNW) (ETH)

BIOL 1050 Biology of Disease (3)

This course focuses on the physiological changes associated with diseases of the major organ systems of the human body. Each system is presented from the perspective of the function of the organ system and how alterations in that organ system function lead to a lack of integration with other organ systems and untimely disease. GCP Coding: (PNW) (WCOM)

BIOL 1200 Stream Ecology (4)

This course is an in-depth study and experiential exploration of various freshwater aquatic habitats, as well as the interdisciplinary literature that is associated with each habitat and ecosystem. Pond, wetland, stream, river, and basin – each habitat is explored, studied, and experienced. Water chemistry, EPA standardized water testing, sampling and evaluating of aquatic invertebrates analysis of water, watershed, and ecosystem health reporting our findings to private and state agencies – these are all vital and important parts of this course. Students will be certified in Missouri Stream Team standards at the end of the course and will be able to start their own Stream Team. There will be multiple field trips, some overnight, to local and regional streams, rivers, and watersheds. Laboratory is included.

BIOL 1318 Issues I Biology (1-3)

Deals with biological issues of general interest. May be repeated for credit if content differs. Prerequisite: May vary with section.

BIOL 1350 Phage Discovery (4)

This is the first semester of a year-long research-based course that immerses students in authentic and accessible research. Students will work toward finding new bacterial viruses and characterizing them. Students make significant contributions to the field of genomics as they learn how to think like scientists. Laboratory is included. GCP Coding: (PNW) (CRI)

BIOL 1550 Essentials of Biology I (4) BIOL 1551 Essentials of Biology I: Lab (1)

An introduction to basic principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, cellular biology, and evolution. Students will learn how to apply these basic principles to critically think about and communicate current scientific issues. Laboratory is required. Limited to majors in the sciences or by permission of the instructor. Co-requisites: BIOL 1550 and BIOL 1551 must be taken concurrently. GCP Coding for BIOL 1550: (PNW) (CRI)

BIOL 1560 Essentials of Biology II (4) BIOL 1561 Essentials of Biology II: Lab (1)

A survey of living organisms and ecology. Structure, function and biological processes will be covered. Laboratory required. Prerequisites: BIOL 1550. Limited to majors in the sciences or by permission of the instructor. Co-requisites: BIOL 1560 and BIOL 1561 must be taken concurrently.

BIOL 1610 Anatomy and Physiology I (3) BIOL 1611 Anatomy and Physiology I: Lab (1)

Introduces the structure and function of the human body. Topics include biochemistry, cell biology, skeletal systems (histology, immunology, muscle tissues), neurobiology, and nervous systems. Includes laboratory sections involving mitosis, tissues, and bones. Laboratory is required. Offered only at Lutheran School of Nursing. Co-requisites: BIOL 1610 and BIOL 1611 must be taken concurrently.

BIOL 1620 Anatomy and Physiology II (3) BIOL 1621 Anatomy and Physiology II: Lab (1)

Continues BIOL 1610 and includes the remaining major organ systems (cardiovascular, urinary, respiratory, digestive, and endocrine systems). Includes laboratory sections involving cat dissection. Laboratory is required. Offered only at Lutheran School of Nursing. Co-requisites: BIOL 1620 and BIOL 1621 must be taken concurrently.

BIOL 2000 Introduction to Computational Biology (3)

This course demonstrates the rationale and uses for large biological datasets and engages students in DNA sequence analyses using several types of biological databases. Students learn the strengths and weaknesses of the various types of data that provide insight into biology and work with computational methods to analyze novel genomes. Students will use DNA analysis software programs and/or programming language at an introductory level. Prerequisite: BIOL 1560.

BIOL 2010 Evolution (3)

This course covers the development of evolutionary theory, examines the genetic basis of evolution, explores mechanisms of speciation and the construction of phylogeny, and studies various data that contribute to the current understanding of biological evolution that yields the present day diversity of life. Students perform an investigation on an evolutionary topic of choice, and present a critical analysis of the findings. Prerequisites: BIOL 1550 and BIOL 1560, or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 2011 Evolution: Lab (2)

This course provides a general assessment of the different disciplines in the evolutionary field and helps students develop an understanding of the principles used by evolutionary biologist to create new knowledge. Students will examine mechanisms of evolution and speciation, the development of evolutionary theory and study various data that contribute to our current understanding of biological evolution. Students will learn first-hand how evolution drives patterns of biodiversity through a required short-term study abroad trip to the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. They will develop skills in hypothesis-driven science and perform an investigation on an evolutionary topic of choice. They will use basic experimental design and statistical tests used in evolutionary biology and present a critical analysis of the findings. Study Abroad fee will vary. Prerequisites: BIOL 1550 and BIOL 1560, or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 2200 Biological Basis of Animal Behavior (3)

Presents the key processes that affect animal behavior (internal mechanisms, development, social interactions, ecology, and evolution) and their significance.

BIOL 2400 Zoology (3)

This course will delve into the evolutionary and ecological perspectives of the group of organisms we call “animals.” Structure function relationships, physiological processes, and the role animals play in our ecosystem will be explored. Prerequisites: BIOL 1550, BIOL 1551, BIOL 1560 and BIOL 1561.

BIOL 3010 Human Anatomy & Physiology (3) BIOL 3011 Human Anatomy & Physiology I: Lab (1)

An upper division course designed for biology majors familiar with the general principles of biological and chemical sciences. Initial discussions involve the relationships between macromolecules, metabolism, cytology, and histology. This is followed by examinations of the integumentary system, skeletal system, muscular system, and nervous system. Homeostatic regulation is presented as a function of the nervous system. Laboratory sessions involve microscopic examinations of cells and tissues and bones. Laboratory required. Offered in the fall semester. Prerequisites: BIOL 1550, BIOL 1551 and CHEM 1100, CHEM 1101 or permission of the instructor. Co-requisites: BIOL 3010 and BIOL 3011 must be taken concurrently.

BIOL 3020 Human Anatomy & Physiology II (3) BIOL 3021 Human Anatomy & Physiology II: Lab (1)

An upper division course which follows BIOL 3010. Lecture discussions involve detailed examination of cardiovascular, pulmonary, renal, digestive, endocrine, and gastrointestinal systems. Labs will involve feline dissections of these systems and examination of the musculature. Labs can also involve viewing of dissected human cadavers. Laboratory required. Offered in the spring semester. Prerequisites: BIOL 3010 and BIOL 3011 or permission of the instructor. Co-requisites: BIOL 3020 and BIOL 3021 must be taken concurrently.

BIOL 3050 Genetics (3) BIOL 3051 Genetics: Lab (1)

This course establishes an understanding of genetic analyses in prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic systems and model organisms, with an emphasis on Mendelian genetics. Topics include transmission genetics, molecular genetics, and population genetics, with a focus on problem solving. Laboratory required. Offered in the spring semester. Prerequisites: BIOL 1550, BIOL 1551 and BIOL 1560, BIOL 1561, or permission of the instructor. Co-requisites: BIOL 3050 and BIOL 3051 must be taken concurrently.

BIOL 3060 Genetics II Lecture (3)

This course centers around molecular genetics and genomics, with an emphasis on genotypes, gene editing/modification, comparative genomics, population genetics and bioinformatics. This is a hybrid lecture-based course with an experimental component sessions may include lectures, journal club-like literature studies, activities or lab experiments. Prerequisites: BIOL 3050 and BIOL 3051.

BIOL 3061 Genetics II Lab (1)

When offered, this course should be taken concurrently with BIOL 3060, and centers around molecular genetics and genomics, with an emphasis on genotypes, gene editing/modification, comparative genomics, population genetics and bioinformatics. Prerequisites: BIOL 3050 and BIOL 3051.

BIOL 3080 Cell Biology (3) BIOL 3081 Cell Biology: Lab (1)

Examines cellular structure and function in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. This course provides the foundation for understanding modes of cellular communication, such as channels, receptors, messenger systems, and cell cycle processes. Energy production, storage, and utilization are also discussed. Offered in the spring semester. Prerequisites: BIOL 3080, BIOL 3081 and CHEM 3100 taken concurrently, or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 3120 Microbiology (3) BIOL 3121 Microbiology: Lab (1)

A study of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protists with respect to microbial structure and function, growth, metabolism, pathogenesis, and methods of disinfection and sterilization. Prerequisites: CHEM 2100, BIOL 1550, BIOL 1560 or equivalent. Co-requisites: BIOL 3120 and BIOL 3121 must be taken concurrently.

BIOL 3150 Nutrition (3)

Examines the physiologic importance of all major nutrients on an individual's health. Effects of both deficiencies and excesses of the nutrients will be studied. The relationship between energy balance (calories) and weight control is emphasized. Prerequisites: Junior standing or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 3200 Ecology (3) BIOL 3201 Ecology: Lab (1)

Defines ecosystems, examines how they function, and how human intervention changes that function. Emphasizes world ecosystems. Laboratory required. Offered in the fall semester. Prerequisites: BIOL 1550 and BIOL 1560, or permission of the instructor. Co-requisites: BIOL 3200 and BIOL 3201 must be taken concurrently.

BIOL 3400 Cell Culture (3)

This course takes an in-depth look at the techniques and equipment used in cell and tissue culture. This course provides the student with hands-on experience. Laboratory exercises will be preceded by lectures to provide the rationale behind the methodology. Prerequisites: BIOL 1550, BIOL 1551, BIOL 1560, BIOL 1561, BIOL 3050 and BIOL 3051. Junior standing in BA biology or BS biological sciences, or permissions of the instructor.

BIOL 3600 Topics in Biology (1-4)

Provides for in-depth analysis of issues and topics of specialized interest to advanced students in the life sciences. May be repeated for credit if content differs. Prerequisite: Junior standing or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 3700 Plant Physiology (3) BIOL 3701 Plant Physiology: Lab (1)

Plant physiology is the study of how plants function and grow. This course aims to broaden students' understanding of how physical, chemical, and biotic factors affect the life of a plant. Emphasis will be placed on water relations, metabolism, and regulation of plant growth and development. Students will be expected to read, present, and discuss research from current scientific articles about plant physiology. Laboratory required. Prerequisites: BIOL 1560 and CHEM 1110, or permission of the instructor. Co-requisites: BIOL 3700 and BIOL 3701 must be taken concurrently.

BIOL 3800 Medical Terminology (3)

This course provides the student with the building blocks of basic medical terminology. Such information will facilitate learning of scientific and medical principles as they relate to the physiological processes in the human body. The relationship of word parts to their anatomical counterparts will be studied. Rules for combining word parts into complete medical terms will be stressed. Accurate pronunciation and spelling of word parts and complete terms will be emphasized throughout the course. Offered in online format.

BIOL 3900 Journal Club (3)

Keeping up with current scientific knowledge requires reading the latest scientific publications. This journal club course will focus on a specific area of research and delve into recent progress made in this field. Students will gain an in-depth understanding of the principles, techniques, and context of the subject while developing their skills in oral communication. This course can be repeated for credit, as the topics and research papers will differ each time. However, the course can only count one time toward the major. Prerequisites: BIOL 1550 and BIOL 1560, or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 4050 Gene Expression (3)

Reviews the structure and function of chromosomes, the regulation of gene expression, and the molecular basis of gene mutation. Special topics will include gene regulation during development, the genetic basis of cancer, and the use of transgenic model systems. Prerequisites: BIOL 3050, BIOL 3051 and BIOL 3080, or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 4300 Immunology (3)

Provides the student with a detailed understanding of the mechanisms involved in protecting the body from infections and other potential sources of tissue damage. It examines the workings of the immune system and the interrelationships among its cell types. Prerequisite: BIOL 3080, or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 4400 Research Methods (3)

Lecture and discussion of the research process from question formulation to planning, design, methodology analysis, and preparation of a research proposal. Prerequisites: BIOL 1550, BIOL 1551, BIOL 1560, BIOL 1561, BIOL 2010, BIOL 3050, BIOL 3051, CHEM 1100, CHEM 1101, CHEM 1110, CHEM 1111, CHEM 2100 and CHEM 2101. Senior status in BA biology or BS biological sciences, or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 4420 Senior Thesis for BA in Biology (4)

Students working toward a BA in biology will enroll in this course to complete their senior research project in the laboratory or field. Completion of the project will culminate with a scientific write-up and oral presentation of research results at a formal meeting of faculty and peers. Student must complete all required coursework for the major, including BIOL 4400 Research Methods, or receive permission of the instructor.

BIOL 4430 Senior Thesis for BS in Biological Sciences (4)

Students working toward a BS in biological sciences will enroll in this courses to complete their senior research project in the laboratory or field. Completion of the project will culminate with a scientific write-up in publishable format. Research results will be presented at a formal meeting with faculty and peers. Student must complete all required coursework for the major, including BIOL 4400 Research Methods, or receive permission of the instructor.

BIOL 4500 Virology (3)

Investigates the fundamental processes of viral evolution, classification, infection of host, pathogenesis, and viral replication. The use of viruses in biomedical research will be presented in order to understand the methodologies for the isolation, identification, and detection of viruses. Prerequisites: BIOL 3050, BIOL 3051, BIOL 3080, BIOL 3081 and CHEM 3100, or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 4610 Reading Course (1-4)

May be repeated for credit if content differs. Prerequisites: Permission of the department chair and filing of the official form.

BIOL 4700 Independent Research in Biology I (1-4)

A specialized course for students working on an independent, research-oriented project in a topic of current interest. Students should select among the equivalent courses BIOL 4700/CHEM 4700/PHYS 4700 for the one that is most consistent with their chosen project. For BIOL 4700, the topic should have a primary basis in biology. Also offered during the summer term. May be repeated once for credit if content differs. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor.

BIOL 4710 Independent Research in Biology II (1-4)

A specialized course for students working on an independent, research-oriented project in a topic of current interest. Students should select among the equivalent courses BIOL 4710/CHEM 4710/PHYS 4710 for the one that is most consistent with their chosen project. For BIOL 4710, the topic should have a primary basis in biology. Also offered during the summer term. May be repeated once for credit if content differs. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor.

BIOL 4750 Laboratory Teaching Assistant (1-3)

Teaching assistantships benefit students by providing a basic understanding of both the science and logistics of running different types of biology and chemistry labs. The students gain experience in experimental techniques, some pedagogy and overall classroom organization. These skills are useful for those who plan to pursue science teaching professional and are translatable to other types of jobs. Second, teaching assistants are part of a team effort within the biological sciences department to offer meaningful hands on laboratory components of critical courses and develop relationships with faculty members. These faculty-student interactions can lead to letters of recommendation or more long-term mentoring relationships. Prerequisites: Students will have taken the laboratory course they will be assisting in with a grade of B or better. Submit laboratory teaching assistant application for department approval.

BIOL 4900 Internship in Biological Sciences (1-3)

This course awards credit for approved research experiences with a business or not-for-profit organization that affords students an opportunity to apply and integrate the knowledge and skills they have gained in the classroom to the real world. Prerequisite: Students will submit an application for internship credit to the department chair for approval and determination of credit hours awarded.


Contents

At its most comprehensive definition, biochemistry can be seen as a study of the components and composition of living things and how they come together to become life. In this sense, the history of biochemistry may therefore go back as far as the ancient Greeks. [10] However, biochemistry as a specific scientific discipline began sometime in the 19th century, or a little earlier, depending on which aspect of biochemistry is being focused on. Some argued that the beginning of biochemistry may have been the discovery of the first enzyme, diastase (now called amylase), in 1833 by Anselme Payen, [11] while others considered Eduard Buchner's first demonstration of a complex biochemical process alcoholic fermentation in cell-free extracts in 1897 to be the birth of biochemistry. [12] [13] [14] Some might also point as its beginning to the influential 1842 work by Justus von Liebig, Animal chemistry, or, Organic chemistry in its applications to physiology and pathology, which presented a chemical theory of metabolism, [10] or even earlier to the 18th century studies on fermentation and respiration by Antoine Lavoisier. [15] [16] Many other pioneers in the field who helped to uncover the layers of complexity of biochemistry have been proclaimed founders of modern biochemistry. Emil Fischer, who studied the chemistry of proteins, [17] and F. Gowland Hopkins, who studied enzymes and the dynamic nature of biochemistry, represent two examples of early biochemists. [18]

The term "biochemistry" itself is derived from a combination of biology and chemistry. In 1877, Felix Hoppe-Seyler used the term (biochemie in German) as a synonym for physiological chemistry in the foreword to the first issue of Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie (Journal of Physiological Chemistry) where he argued for the setting up of institutes dedicated to this field of study. [19] [20] The German chemist Carl Neuberg however is often cited to have coined the word in 1903, [21] [22] [23] while some credited it to Franz Hofmeister. [24]

It was once generally believed that life and its materials had some essential property or substance (often referred to as the "vital principle") distinct from any found in non-living matter, and it was thought that only living beings could produce the molecules of life. [26] In 1828, Friedrich Wöhler published a paper on his serendipitous urea synthesis from potassium cyanate and ammonium sulfate some regarded that as a direct overthrow of vitalism and the establishment of organic chemistry. [27] [28] However, the Wöhler synthesis has sparked controversy as some reject the death of vitalism at his hands. [29] Since then, biochemistry has advanced, especially since the mid-20th century, with the development of new techniques such as chromatography, X-ray diffraction, dual polarisation interferometry, NMR spectroscopy, radioisotopic labeling, electron microscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. These techniques allowed for the discovery and detailed analysis of many molecules and metabolic pathways of the cell, such as glycolysis and the Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle), and led to an understanding of biochemistry on a molecular level.

Another significant historic event in biochemistry is the discovery of the gene, and its role in the transfer of information in the cell. In the 1950s, James D. Watson, Francis Crick, Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins were instrumental in solving DNA structure and suggesting its relationship with the genetic transfer of information. [30] In 1958, George Beadle and Edward Tatum received the Nobel Prize for work in fungi showing that one gene produces one enzyme. [31] In 1988, Colin Pitchfork was the first person convicted of murder with DNA evidence, which led to the growth of forensic science. [32] More recently, Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello received the 2006 Nobel Prize for discovering the role of RNA interference (RNAi), in the silencing of gene expression. [33]

Around two dozen chemical elements are essential to various kinds of biological life. Most rare elements on Earth are not needed by life (exceptions being selenium and iodine), [34] while a few common ones (aluminum and titanium) are not used. Most organisms share element needs, but there are a few differences between plants and animals. For example, ocean algae use bromine, but land plants and animals seem to need none. All animals require sodium, but some plants do not. Plants need boron and silicon, but animals may not (or may need ultra-small amounts).

Just six elements—carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, calcium and phosphorus—make up almost 99% of the mass of living cells, including those in the human body (see composition of the human body for a complete list). In addition to the six major elements that compose most of the human body, humans require smaller amounts of possibly 18 more. [35]

The 4 main classes of molecules in bio-chemistry (often called biomolecules) are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. [36] Many biological molecules are polymers: in this terminology, monomers are relatively small macromolecules that are linked together to create large macromolecules known as polymers. When monomers are linked together to synthesize a biological polymer, they undergo a process called dehydration synthesis. Different macromolecules can assemble in larger complexes, often needed for biological activity.

Carbohydrates Edit

Two of the main functions of carbohydrates are energy storage and providing structure. One of the common sugars known as glucose is carbohydrate, but not all carbohydrates are sugars. There are more carbohydrates on Earth than any other known type of biomolecule they are used to store energy and genetic information, as well as play important roles in cell to cell interactions and communications.

The simplest type of carbohydrate is a monosaccharide, which among other properties contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, mostly in a ratio of 1:2:1 (generalized formula CnH2nOn, where n is at least 3). Glucose (C6H12O6) is one of the most important carbohydrates others include fructose (C6H12O6), the sugar commonly associated with the sweet taste of fruits, [37] [a] and deoxyribose (C5H10O4), a component of DNA. A monosaccharide can switch between acyclic (open-chain) form and a cyclic form. The open-chain form can be turned into a ring of carbon atoms bridged by an oxygen atom created from the carbonyl group of one end and the hydroxyl group of another. The cyclic molecule has a hemiacetal or hemiketal group, depending on whether the linear form was an aldose or a ketose. [38]

In these cyclic forms, the ring usually has 5 or 6 atoms. These forms are called furanoses and pyranoses, respectively—by analogy with furan and pyran, the simplest compounds with the same carbon-oxygen ring (although they lack the carbon-carbon double bonds of these two molecules). For example, the aldohexose glucose may form a hemiacetal linkage between the hydroxyl on carbon 1 and the oxygen on carbon 4, yielding a molecule with a 5-membered ring, called glucofuranose. The same reaction can take place between carbons 1 and 5 to form a molecule with a 6-membered ring, called glucopyranose. Cyclic forms with a 7-atom ring called heptoses are rare.

Two monosaccharides can be joined together by a glycosidic or ether bond into a disaccharide through a dehydration reaction during which a molecule of water is released. The reverse reaction in which the glycosidic bond of a disaccharide is broken into two monosaccharides is termed hydrolysis. The best-known disaccharide is sucrose or ordinary sugar, which consists of a glucose molecule and a fructose molecule joined together. Another important disaccharide is lactose found in milk, consisting of a glucose molecule and a galactose molecule. Lactose may be hydrolysed by lactase, and deficiency in this enzyme results in lactose intolerance.

When a few (around three to six) monosaccharides are joined, it is called an oligosaccharide (oligo- meaning "few"). These molecules tend to be used as markers and signals, as well as having some other uses. [39] Many monosaccharides joined together form a polysaccharide. They can be joined together in one long linear chain, or they may be branched. Two of the most common polysaccharides are cellulose and glycogen, both consisting of repeating glucose monomers. Cellulose is an important structural component of plant's cell walls and glycogen is used as a form of energy storage in animals.

Sugar can be characterized by having reducing or non-reducing ends. A reducing end of a carbohydrate is a carbon atom that can be in equilibrium with the open-chain aldehyde (aldose) or keto form (ketose). If the joining of monomers takes place at such a carbon atom, the free hydroxy group of the pyranose or furanose form is exchanged with an OH-side-chain of another sugar, yielding a full acetal. This prevents opening of the chain to the aldehyde or keto form and renders the modified residue non-reducing. Lactose contains a reducing end at its glucose moiety, whereas the galactose moiety forms a full acetal with the C4-OH group of glucose. Saccharose does not have a reducing end because of full acetal formation between the aldehyde carbon of glucose (C1) and the keto carbon of fructose (C2).

Lipids Edit

Lipids comprise a diverse range of molecules and to some extent is a catchall for relatively water-insoluble or nonpolar compounds of biological origin, including waxes, fatty acids, fatty-acid derived phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids, and terpenoids (e.g., retinoids and steroids). Some lipids are linear, open-chain aliphatic molecules, while others have ring structures. Some are aromatic (with a cyclic [ring] and planar [flat] structure) while others are not. Some are flexible, while others are rigid.

Lipids are usually made from one molecule of glycerol combined with other molecules. In triglycerides, the main group of bulk lipids, there is one molecule of glycerol and three fatty acids. Fatty acids are considered the monomer in that case, and may be saturated (no double bonds in the carbon chain) or unsaturated (one or more double bonds in the carbon chain).

Most lipids have some polar character in addition to being largely nonpolar. In general, the bulk of their structure is nonpolar or hydrophobic ("water-fearing"), meaning that it does not interact well with polar solvents like water. Another part of their structure is polar or hydrophilic ("water-loving") and will tend to associate with polar solvents like water. This makes them amphiphilic molecules (having both hydrophobic and hydrophilic portions). In the case of cholesterol, the polar group is a mere –OH (hydroxyl or alcohol). In the case of phospholipids, the polar groups are considerably larger and more polar, as described below.

Lipids are an integral part of our daily diet. Most oils and milk products that we use for cooking and eating like butter, cheese, ghee etc., are composed of fats. Vegetable oils are rich in various polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Lipid-containing foods undergo digestion within the body and are broken into fatty acids and glycerol, which are the final degradation products of fats and lipids. Lipids, especially phospholipids, are also used in various pharmaceutical products, either as co-solubilisers (e.g., in parenteral infusions) or else as drug carrier components (e.g., in a liposome or transfersome).

Proteins Edit

Proteins are very large molecules—macro-biopolymers—made from monomers called amino acids. An amino acid consists of an alpha carbon atom attached to an amino group, –NH2, a carboxylic acid group, –COOH (although these exist as –NH3 + and –COO − under physiologic conditions), a simple hydrogen atom, and a side chain commonly denoted as "–R". The side chain "R" is different for each amino acid of which there are 20 standard ones. It is this "R" group that made each amino acid different, and the properties of the side-chains greatly influence the overall three-dimensional conformation of a protein. Some amino acids have functions by themselves or in a modified form for instance, glutamate functions as an important neurotransmitter. Amino acids can be joined via a peptide bond. In this dehydration synthesis, a water molecule is removed and the peptide bond connects the nitrogen of one amino acid's amino group to the carbon of the other's carboxylic acid group. The resulting molecule is called a dipeptide, and short stretches of amino acids (usually, fewer than thirty) are called peptides or polypeptides. Longer stretches merit the title proteins. As an example, the important blood serum protein albumin contains 585 amino acid residues. [42]

Proteins can have structural and/or functional roles. For instance, movements of the proteins actin and myosin ultimately are responsible for the contraction of skeletal muscle. One property many proteins have is that they specifically bind to a certain molecule or class of molecules—they may be extremely selective in what they bind. Antibodies are an example of proteins that attach to one specific type of molecule. Antibodies are composed of heavy and light chains. Two heavy chains would be linked to two light chains through disulfide linkages between their amino acids. Antibodies are specific through variation based on differences in the N-terminal domain. [43]

The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which uses antibodies, is one of the most sensitive tests modern medicine uses to detect various biomolecules. Probably the most important proteins, however, are the enzymes. Virtually every reaction in a living cell requires an enzyme to lower the activation energy of the reaction. [12] These molecules recognize specific reactant molecules called substrates they then catalyze the reaction between them. By lowering the activation energy, the enzyme speeds up that reaction by a rate of 10 11 or more [12] a reaction that would normally take over 3,000 years to complete spontaneously might take less than a second with an enzyme. The enzyme itself is not used up in the process and is free to catalyze the same reaction with a new set of substrates. Using various modifiers, the activity of the enzyme can be regulated, enabling control of the biochemistry of the cell as a whole. [12]

The structure of proteins is traditionally described in a hierarchy of four levels. The primary structure of a protein consists of its linear sequence of amino acids for instance, "alanine-glycine-tryptophan-serine-glutamate-asparagine-glycine-lysine-…". Secondary structure is concerned with local morphology (morphology being the study of structure). Some combinations of amino acids will tend to curl up in a coil called an α-helix or into a sheet called a β-sheet some α-helixes can be seen in the hemoglobin schematic above. Tertiary structure is the entire three-dimensional shape of the protein. This shape is determined by the sequence of amino acids. In fact, a single change can change the entire structure. The alpha chain of hemoglobin contains 146 amino acid residues substitution of the glutamate residue at position 6 with a valine residue changes the behavior of hemoglobin so much that it results in sickle-cell disease. Finally, quaternary structure is concerned with the structure of a protein with multiple peptide subunits, like hemoglobin with its four subunits. Not all proteins have more than one subunit. [44]

Ingested proteins are usually broken up into single amino acids or dipeptides in the small intestine and then absorbed. They can then be joined to form new proteins. Intermediate products of glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the pentose phosphate pathway can be used to form all twenty amino acids, and most bacteria and plants possess all the necessary enzymes to synthesize them. Humans and other mammals, however, can synthesize only half of them. They cannot synthesize isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine. Because they must be ingested, these are the essential amino acids. Mammals do possess the enzymes to synthesize alanine, asparagine, aspartate, cysteine, glutamate, glutamine, glycine, proline, serine, and tyrosine, the nonessential amino acids. While they can synthesize arginine and histidine, they cannot produce it in sufficient amounts for young, growing animals, and so these are often considered essential amino acids.

If the amino group is removed from an amino acid, it leaves behind a carbon skeleton called an α-keto acid. Enzymes called transaminases can easily transfer the amino group from one amino acid (making it an α-keto acid) to another α-keto acid (making it an amino acid). This is important in the biosynthesis of amino acids, as for many of the pathways, intermediates from other biochemical pathways are converted to the α-keto acid skeleton, and then an amino group is added, often via transamination. The amino acids may then be linked together to form a protein.

A similar process is used to break down proteins. It is first hydrolyzed into its component amino acids. Free ammonia (NH3), existing as the ammonium ion (NH4+) in blood, is toxic to life forms. A suitable method for excreting it must therefore exist. Different tactics have evolved in different animals, depending on the animals' needs. Unicellular organisms simply release the ammonia into the environment. Likewise, bony fish can release the ammonia into the water where it is quickly diluted. In general, mammals convert the ammonia into urea, via the urea cycle.

In order to determine whether two proteins are related, or in other words to decide whether they are homologous or not, scientists use sequence-comparison methods. Methods like sequence alignments and structural alignments are powerful tools that help scientists identify homologies between related molecules. The relevance of finding homologies among proteins goes beyond forming an evolutionary pattern of protein families. By finding how similar two protein sequences are, we acquire knowledge about their structure and therefore their function.

Nucleic acids Edit

Nucleic acids, so-called because of their prevalence in cellular nuclei, is the generic name of the family of biopolymers. They are complex, high-molecular-weight biochemical macromolecules that can convey genetic information in all living cells and viruses. [2] The monomers are called nucleotides, and each consists of three components: a nitrogenous heterocyclic base (either a purine or a pyrimidine), a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. [45]

The most common nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). The phosphate group and the sugar of each nucleotide bond with each other to form the backbone of the nucleic acid, while the sequence of nitrogenous bases stores the information. The most common nitrogenous bases are adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, and uracil. The nitrogenous bases of each strand of a nucleic acid will form hydrogen bonds with certain other nitrogenous bases in a complementary strand of nucleic acid (similar to a zipper). Adenine binds with thymine and uracil, thymine binds only with adenine, and cytosine and guanine can bind only with one another. Adenine and Thymine & Adenine and Uracil contains two hydrogen Bonds, while Hydrogen Bonds formed between cytosine and guanine are three in number.

Aside from the genetic material of the cell, nucleic acids often play a role as second messengers, as well as forming the base molecule for adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the primary energy-carrier molecule found in all living organisms. Also, the nitrogenous bases possible in the two nucleic acids are different: adenine, cytosine, and guanine occur in both RNA and DNA, while thymine occurs only in DNA and uracil occurs in RNA.

Carbohydrates as energy source Edit

Glucose is an energy source in most life forms. For instance, polysaccharides are broken down into their monomers by enzymes (glycogen phosphorylase removes glucose residues from glycogen, a polysaccharide). Disaccharides like lactose or sucrose are cleaved into their two component monosaccharides.


Course Descriptions

BIOL 109-110 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY (C)*
This course focuses on the structure and functions of the organs and organ systems of the human body with expanded coverage of topics such as mechanisms of disease. Three lectures and one three-hour laboratory (BIOL 109L-110L). Not recommended for biology majors except those planning to pursue careers such as Physician’s Assistant, Physical or Occupational Therapist, or Pharmacy (4 credits each).

Please note: Students must complete BIOL 109 with at least a C in order to register for BIOL 110. Nursing majors must complete BIOL 109 with at least a C+ in order to register for BIOL 110.
BIOL 111-112 GENERAL BIOLOGY (C)*
An exploration of the central concepts of cell biology, plant and animal biology, molecular biology, genetics, evolution, ecology and biodiversity. Three lectures, one recitation (BIOL 111R), and one three-hour laboratory (BIOL 111L-112L) (4 credits each).
Prerequisite for BIOL 112 is successful completion of BIOL 111 with a C or better.
Please note: Biology majors must complete BIOL 111-112 with at least a C in order to register for additional BIOL courses (except BIOL 109-110).

BIOL 204 HUMAN GENETICS
An exploration of the basic principles of human genetics, including chromosomal structure, DNA replication, transcription and translation, and, importantly, how changes in DNA lead to mutations, the mode of inheritance of these mutations, prevention, genetic counseling and gene therapies. Three lectures. Biology majors may not use this course as credit toward the major (3 credits).

BIOL 211 MICROBIOLOGY AND HUMAN DISEASE
A survey of microorganisms related to human disease and the laboratory procedures employed in their identification. Three lectures and one three-hour laboratory (BIOL 211L). Biology majors may not use this course as credit toward the major (4 credits).

BIOL 217 GENETICS
Fundamental principles of transmission and molecular genetics with special emphasis placed on Mendelian inheritance, epistasis, recombination mapping, complementation, and the central dogma of molecular biology. Three lectures and one three-hour laboratory (BIOL 217L) (4 credits).

BIOL 223 ECOLOGY
This course is an introduction to the study of the distribution, abundance and interactions of organisms and their environment. Survey of ecological principles at the level of individuals, populations, communities, and ecosystems. Three lectures and one three-hour laboratory (BIOL 223L) (4 credits).

BIOL 225 MICROBIOLOGY
Morphology, physiology, genetics and ecology of microorganisms. Three lectures and one three-hour laboratory (BIOL 225L) (4 credits).

BIOL 301 COMPARATIVE CHORDATE ANATOMY
Anatomy, physiology, and evolutionary relationships of chordates. Three lectures and one three-hour laboratory (BIOL 301L). Students may not take BIOL 301 for credit toward the major if credits from BIOL 109 and/or BIOL 110 have already been used (4 credits).

BIOL 302 DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
A study of cellular and molecular process underlying the development of various organisms. Emphasis will be placed on fertilization events, spatial organization, pattern formation and gene action in development. Three lectures and one three-hour laboratory (BIOL 302L) (4 credits).
Prerequisite: BIOL 217

BIOL 304 INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY
Morphological and physiological characteristics of selected invertebrates and consideration of their ecological relationships. Three lectures and one three-hour laboratory (BIOL 304L) (4 credits).

BIOL 305 PLANT BIOLOGY
Physiological, biochemical and anatomical aspects of plants will be studied in the context of their native environments. Three lectures and one three-hour laboratory (BIOL 305L) (4 credits).

BIOL 306 PHYSIOLOGY OF EXERCISE
The investigation of human physiological responses to exercise in relation to age, sex, physical fitness and environmental conditions. Three lectures (3 credits).
Prerequisites: BIOL 109-110

BIOL 309 KINESIOLOGY
The study of mechanical and anatomical aspects of human movement. Three lectures. 3 credits
Prerequisites: BIOL 109-110

BIOL 310, 311, 410, 411 RESEARCH IN BIOLOGY
Investigation of challenging problems in biology. Three, 6, or 9 hours per week. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the Division of Natural Sciences must be obtained in advance of registration. Biology majors may apply a total of 7 credits toward the major from a combination of these courses: Research in Biology, Independent Study in Biology, and internship in biology (1, 2 or 3 credits each).

BIOL 317 EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY
An exploration of evolutionary theory with emphasis on genetic variation, evolutionary processes, adaptation, units of selection, evolution of life histories, species and speciation and coevolution. Three lectures. Students who have completed BIOL 440 Understanding Evolution cannot take this course for credit (3 credits).

BIOL 320 SYSTEMIC PHYSIOLOGY
A detailed examination of the physiology of the major organ systems of the human body, including digestion, respiration, cardiovascular, urinary, and reproduction, centered on the theme of homeostasis. Three lectures and one three-hour laboratory (BIOL 320L). Students may not take BIOL 320 for credit toward the major if credits from BIOL 109 and/or BIOL 110 have already been used (4 credits).

BIOL 321 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
In-depth treatment of nucleic acid structure, information coding, transcription, translation, DNA replication, recombinant DNA technology, and other aspects of nucleic acid metabolism. Three lectures and one three-hour laboratory (BIOL 321L) (4 credits).
Prerequisites: BIOL 217 or CHEM 433

BIOL 326 ANIMAL BEHAVIOR
The biological basis of animal behavior from an ecological and evolutionary perspective. Three lectures and one three-hour laboratory (BIOL 326L) (4 credits).

BIOL 328 FORENSIC BIOLOGY
The scientific examination of simulated crime scenes, with emphasis on the preservation of evidence organic and inorganic analyses of physical evidence analysis of biological evidence including hair, fingerprint, serological, and DNA samples potential drug analysis document and voice assessment. The accompanying laboratory will expose the students to many of the basic techniques and equipment used in a modern forensic laboratory. Three lectures and one three-hour laboratory (BIOL 328L) (4 credits).
Prerequisite: BIOL 217

BIOL 331 CELL BIOLOGY
This course is designed to provide an in-depth analysis of the internal organization of the cell that is simply not provided in biochemistry, molecular biology, or developmental biology courses. The course will cover topics such as membrane structure, vesicular trafficking, signal transduction, the cytoskeleton, and the cell cycle. Three lectures (3 credits).
Prerequisite: BIOL 217 or CHEM 433

BIOL 333 HUMAN PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
Understanding the underlying mechanisms of disease, the rationale for designated treatments, and the complex interrelationships between critical systems. Three lectures. Biology majors may not use this course as credit toward the major (3 credits).
Prerequisite: BIOL 109-110

BIOL 334 PHARMACOPHYSIOLOGY
Discussion of disease states and their treatment by pharmacological means. Special emphasis will be placed on the descriptive influence of pathology on systemic function and the use of drugs to restore balance. Three lectures. Not recommended for biology majors except those planning to pursue careers, such as Physician’s Assistant, Physical or Occupational Therapist, or Pharmacy (3 credits).
Prerequisites: BIOL 109-110

BIOL 340 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY
This course introduces the basic concepts of environmental science and the influence of human activities upon the abiotic and biotic environment. Topics include environmental sustainability, ecology and evolution, population growth, natural resources, and a focus on current and local environmental problems from scientific, social, political, and economic perspectives.

Upon completion, students should be able to demonstrate an understanding of environmental interrelationships and of contemporary environmental issues. Three lectures. Biology, biochemistry or chemistry majors may not use this course as credit toward the major. Students who have completed BIOL 223 Ecology cannot take this course for credit (3 credits).

BIOL 360, 361 INDEPENDENT STUDY IN BIOLOGY*
This is an independent study of an area of biology. Three, 6, or 9 hours per week including a weekly conference with sponsor. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the Division of Natural Sciences and permission of the Director must be obtained in advance of registration. Biology majors may apply a total of 7 credits toward the major from a combination of these courses: Research in Biology, Independent Study in Biology, and internship in biology (1, 2, or 3 credits).

BIOL 375 INTERNSHIP*
The internship provides students with the opportunity to explore career positions in biology-related fields. Students are required to sign a contract which specifies the number of hours that will be spent in the institution, the responsibilities that must be fulfilled, and the project that must be completed. The contract is signed by the supervisor, the faculty member, and the internship coordinator at the time of registration. Placement coordinated through the Oxley Integrated Advising Program (3 credits).

BIOL 401 HISTOLOGY
This is a survey of the cellular structure and ultrastructure of mammalian tissues and organs. Three lectures and one three-hour laboratory (BIOL 401L) (4 credits).

BIOL 403-404 BIOLOGY COLLOQUIUM
Study and discussion of biological topics, the preparation of a written monograph, and oral presentation of the work. One discussion period (3 credits).
This is the Biology capstone course, and as such, students must have completed BIOL 111-112, 217, and 223 before registering for Biology Colloquium

BIOL 405 NEUROBIOLOGY
Examination of the basic principles of the nervous system including the cellular and molecular biology of the neuron, synaptic transmission, sensory and motor systems and their integration. Three lectures and one three-hour laboratory (BIOL 405L) (4 credits).
Prerequisite: BIOL 320 or 110

BIOL 406 SPECIAL TOPICS IN BIOLOGY
Current issues and studies in biology. Consult Division Director for topic. Three lectures (3 credits).

BIOL 409 MARINE AND ESTUARINE BIOLOGY
Principles of marine ecology in an oceanic and estuarine environment with emphasis on tropical and temperate communities. Three lectures and one three-hour laboratory (BIOL 409L) (4 credits).

BIOL 420 PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
Understanding the underlying mechanisms of disease, the rationale for designated treatments, and the complex interrelationships between critical systems (3 credits).
Prerequisite: BIOL109-110 or BIOL 301 and BIOL 320

BIOL 426 IMMUNOLOGY
Study of fundamental properties of antigens and antibodies. Theories of antibody production, tolerance, transplantation, immunity, autoimmunity, tumor immunology, and immunochemistry. Introduction to antibody-mediated and cell-mediated reactions. Three lectures (3 credits).
Prerequisite: BIOL 217

BIOL 440 UNDERSTANDING EVOLUTION
An exploration of evolutionary theory with emphasis on genetic variation, evolutionary processes, adaptation, units of selection, evolution of life histories, species, speciation and coevolution. Three lectures. Biology, biochemistry or chemistry majors may not use this course as credit toward the major. Students who have completed BIOL 317 Evolutionary Biology cannot take this course for credit (3 credits).

Chemistry (CHEM)

CHEM 109 GENERAL, ORGANIC and BIOCHEMISTRY (C)*
An introductory course in the principles of chemistry for nursing students. Fundamentals of general chemistry, organic chemistry and biochemistry. Appropriate laboratory exercises to illustrate these principles and to develop techniques. Three lectures, one recitation (CHEM 120R-121R) and one three-hour laboratory (CHEM 109L). Biology, biochemistry or chemistry majors may not use this course as credit toward the major) (4 credits).

CHEM 120 -121 GENERAL CHEMISTRY (C)*
The fundamental laws and principles of chemistry appropriate laboratory exercises to illustrate these principles and to develop proper techniques introduction to quantitative analytical methodology. The second semester of the laboratory includes an introduction to systematic inorganic qualitative analysis. Three lectures and one three-hour laboratory (CHEM 120L-121L) (8 credits).
Co-requisite: MATH 102 or MATH 131 (or permission from the professor)
NOTE – Biochemistry and chemistry majors must complete CHEM 120-121 with at least a C in order to register for additional CHEM courses.

CHEM 219-220 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
The chemistry of carbon compounds. Emphasis on structure and mechanisms of organic reactions. Three lectures and one recitation (219R-220R) (6 credits).
Prerequisite: CHEM 121

CHEM 223-224 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY LABORATORY
Synthesis, purification, analysis, mechanistic studies, and spectral characterization of organic compounds. Four hours of laboratory (4 credits).
Prerequisite or co-requisite: CHEM 219 for 223 220 for 224

CHEM 302 ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY
Principles and applications of classical analytical techniques such as gravimetric and volumetric methods, statistical evaluations of analytical data, as well as modern analytical techniques such as electrochemistry, spectroscopy and chromatography. Statistical evaluation of analytical data. Two lectures and a five-hour laboratory (CHEM 302L) (4 credits).
Prerequisite: CHEM 220 and 224

CHEM 309 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY I
The application of thermodynamics to the study of the properties of gases, the states of matter, thermal chemistry, phase equilibria, chemical equilibria, chemical kinetics, reaction dynamics, and catalysis. Three lectures (3 credits).
Prerequisites: CHEM 121, MATH 231, PHYS 208

CHEM 310 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY II
The elucidation of the molecular structure of matter through application of physical and quantum mechanical theories, principles, techniques, and applications. Three lectures (3 credits).
Prerequisites: CHEM 309 (Prerequisite: MATH 255).

CHEM 311 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY I LABORATORY
Laboratory studies of physical chemical measurements on gases, heats of chemical processes, equilibrium and kinetics. One four-hour laboratory (1 credit).
Prerequisite: CHEM 309.

CHEM 312 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY II LABORATORY
Laboratory studies of molecular structure through the use of spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling. One four-hour laboratory (1 credit).
Co-requisite: CHEM 310 Prerequisite: CHEM 311.

CHEM 314 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY FOR THE LIFE SCIENCES
This course provides a foundation in the principles of physical chemistry and their application to the study of biological systems. The skill sets derived from biology, chemistry, and physics are intricately woven to provide an in-depth understanding of the processes of life on the atomic and molecular level (3 credits).
Prerequisites: CHEM 121, MATH 132, and PHYS 207.

CHEM 315 DESCRIPTIVE INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
An exploration of the theories and models needed to gain a general understanding of elements, with particular attention given to bonding, acid-base theories, oxidation-reduction, coordination chemistry, and periodic trends. Three lectures. Biology, biochemistry or chemistry majors may not use this course as credit toward the major (3 credits).
Prerequisite: CHEM 109 and MATH 1xx or higher

CHEM 335 INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
The chemistry of the elements and their compounds. Industrial, biochemical, environmental, and geochemical applications of inorganic chemistry are emphasized. The periodic table, elementary bonding models and thermodynamic data are used to organize, understand and predict chemical and physical properties of inorganic compounds. Three lectures (3 credits).
Prerequisite: CHEM 220.

CHEM 336 INORGANIC CHEMISTRY LABORATORY
Study of the properties, synthesis, and characterization of inorganic compounds. Experiments include preparations of metallic and non-metallic elements from compounds simple salts by wet and dry methods common gases coordination compounds air sensitive compounds organometallic compounds high temperature superconductors. One four-hour laboratory (1 credit).
Prerequisite: CHEM 335

CHEM 360 INDEPENDENT STUDY IN CHEMISTRY*
Independent study of an area of chemistry. Three, 6, or 9 hours per week including a weekly conference with sponsor. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the Division of Natural Sciences and permission of the Director must be obtained in advance of registration. Chemistry and biochemistry majors can apply up to 3 credits of Independent Study toward the major (1, 2, or 3 credits).

CHEM 403-404 CHEMISTRY COLLOQUIUM
Study and discussion of chemical topics and the completion of a monograph. One discussion period (1 credit).

CHEM 415 ADVANCED ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Structure, mechanism and synthesis in modern organic chemistry. An introduction to the chemistry of natural products and heterocyclic compounds will be included. Three lectures (3 credits).
Prerequisite: CHEM 320

CHEM 421 ADVANCED TOPICS IN CHEMISTRY
Advanced topics in chemistry will be either polymer chemistry or environmental chemistry. A student may elect this course more than once if the topics are different each time. Three lectures (3 credits).
Prerequisite: CHEM 310 and 320

CHEM 425 BIOINORGANIC CHEMISTRY
An exploration of inorganic chemistry as the basis for cellular requirement for metals such as zinc, iron, copper, manganese, and molybdenum. The course will begin with the principles of coordination chemistry and the abilities of functional groups in proteins and nucleic acids to form coordination complexes with metal ions. The reactivity of these coordination complexes will be discussed in the context of the reaction mechanisms of specific metalloenzymes. A portion of the course will be devoted to medically-relevant topics such as metal toxicity, uptake of metal ions from the environment, and treatment of cancer with platinum compounds (3 credits).
Prerequisite: CHEM 220.

CHEM 427 ADVANCED PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
Topics in theoretical physical chemistry with an introduction to the chemical aspects of quantum and statistical mechanics and group theory. Three lectures (3 credits).
Prerequisite: CHEM 310

CHEM 433 BIOCHEMISTRY I
An introduction to the chemistry of biologically important amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins and hormones. Enzyme kinetics and catalysis, protein structure and function, introduction to intermediary metabolism will be included. Three lectures and one three-hour laboratory (CHEM 433L) (4 credits).
Prerequisite: CHEM 220 or 223

CHEM 434 BIOCHEMISTRY II
Chemistry and metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. Protein folding and post-translational modification. Three lectures and one three-hour laboratory (CHEM 434L) (4 credits).
Prerequisite: CHEM 433

CHEM 435 ADVANCED INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Molecular structure and bonding theory. Transition metal chemistry. An introduction to spectroscopy, catalysis and organometallic chemistry. Three lectures (3 credits).
Prerequisite: CHEM 335

Prerequisites: CHEM 309, 320, and 335 -->

CHEM 452 ADVANCED SPECTROSCOPY
A fundamental and theoretical approach to the derivation of chemical structure through high-resolution spectroscopic and computational tools. The consequences of the bonding schemes that arise from chemical structure derivations are related to molecular function for chemical and biochemical purposes. Three lectures (5 credits).
Prerequisites: CHEM 310 and 312

CHEM 460, 461 CHEMICAL RESEARCH*
Investigation of challenging problems in chemistry. Three or 6 hours per week. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the Division of Natural Sciences must be obtained in advance of registration (1 or 2 credits).

CHEM 470 INDEPENDENT STUDY IN CHEMISTRY*
This course is an independent study of an area of chemistry. Three, 6, or 9 hours per week including a weekly conference with sponsor. Sponsorship by a faculty member in the Division of Natural Sciences and permission of the Director must be obtained in advance of registration. Chemistry and Biochemistry majors may apply a total of 7 credits toward the major from a combination of these courses: Research in Chemistry, Independent Study in Chemistry, and Internship in Chemistry (1, 2, or 3 credits).

CHEM 475 INTERNSHIP*
Placement coordinated through the Oxley Integrated Advising Program.

*Biochemistry and chemistry majors may apply a total of 7 credits toward the major from any combination of these courses: Chemical Research, Independent Study in Chemistry, and Internship in Chemistry.

Natural Sciences (NSCI)

Biology, biochemistry and chemistry majors may apply one NSCI course toward the major only if the course content does not substantially duplicate that of another course which is a major requirement.

NSCI 202 CHEMISTRY OF OUR DAILY LIVES (C)*
An exploration of the degree to which chemistry is an integral part of our everyday lives. Three lectures (3 credits).

NSCI 204 HUMAN BIOLOGY (C)*
An exploration of the central concepts of human biology, starting from the structure and function of cells and extending to human physiological systems. Three lectures (3 credits).

NSCI 205 CHEMISTRY FOR THE COURTROOM (C)*
This course assumes no prior knowledge of chemistry and is intended for liberal arts students who wish to have an informed understanding of chemistry and its role in criminal investigations from the crime scene to the laboratory and into the courtroom. Three lectures (3 credits).

NSCI 206 THE PHYSICAL UNIVERSE: HOW THINGS WORK (C)*
This course utilizes working objects found in everyday life to motivate an understanding of basic physics concepts. Students investigate objects such as computer memory and tape recorders, roller coasters, refrigerators, and automobiles. Physics topics include Newtonian mechanics, rotational motion, energy, fluids, heat, sound, electricity and magnetism, electronics, and nuclear radiation. While advanced mathematics is not required for this course, basic math with some trigonometry and simple algebra is utilized. Three lectures (3 credits).

NSCI 207 MAKING SENSE OF SCIENCE IN THE NEWS (C)*
The public learns much about science, medicine and health from the mass media, but many people have a difficult time understanding whether a news report is based on scientific evidence or media hype. This course will teach students ways to look critically at science and medical news stories that are published or broadcast by the media. Three lectures (3 credits).

NSCI 301 ASTRONOMY (C)*
A survey course of astronomy with a focus on science as a process, other worlds, astrophysics, stars, galaxies and the origin of the universe. Three lectures (3 credits).

NSCI 302 GREAT DISCOVERIES IN SCIENCE (C)*
The course will provide a background in many areas of science including biology, chemistry, and physics through the study of the great discoveries in science. The details of the discovery will be explored by studying the personal and scientific background of the scientists. The rationale for the experimental design will be studied and the ways a discovery affected our society both scientifically and socially will be evaluated. The great discoveries will start with the Greek philosophers and span up to the 21st century. Three lectures (3 credits).

NSCI 303 WONDERS OF THE WEATHER (C)*
This course will provide introductory principles of the Earth’s atmosphere, weather systems, and climate. The focus will be on understanding the Earth and our environment as a single interconnected system driven by solar energy, pressure, temperature, storm systems, humidity, fronts, greenhouse effect and general circulation. Three lectures (3 credits).

NSCI 340 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY (C)*
This course introduces the basic concepts of environmental science and the influence of human activities upon the abiotic and biotic environment. Topics include environmental sustainability, ecology and evolution, population growth, natural resources, and a focus on current and local environmental problems from scientific, social, political, and economic perspectives. Upon completion, students should be able to demonstrate an understanding of environmental interrelationships and of contemporary environmental issues. Three lectures. Biology, biochemistry or chemistry majors may not use this course as credit toward the major. Students who have completed BIOL 223 cannot take this course for credit (3 credits).

NSCI 350 BEING GREEN: PLANTS IN OUR WORLD (C)*
This course will explore the fascinating world of plants from the form of a flower to the mind-altering compounds some plants produce. Students will learn the fundamentals of botany, the study of plants, through exploration of plant form, diversity, and use by people. We will examine plant morphology, anatomy, physiology, evolution, and diversity as well as the use of plants for food, materials, and medicine. Three lectures (3 credits).

NSCI 403-404 NATURAL SCIENCE COLLOQUIUM
Study and discussion of topics in the life and physical sciences and the completion of a monograph. One discussion period (3 credits).

Physics (PHYS)

PHYS 205 INTRODUCTORY PHYSICS (C)*
This one-semester course will explore an algebra-based approach to the general understanding of mechanics, heat, electricity, magnetism, optics and elementary atomic and nuclear physics. Emphasis is on general education. Three lectures and one three-hour laboratory (PHYS 205). Biology, biochemistry or chemistry majors may not use this course as credit toward the major (4 credits).
Prerequisites: MATH 120, MATH 212 or MATH 222

PHYS 207-208 GENERAL PHYSICS I and II
An algebra-based approach to the basic concepts of mechanics, heat, electricity, magnetism, optics and elementary atomic and nuclear physics. Emphasis is on biological applications. Three lectures, one recitation, and one three-hour laboratory (PHYS 207L-208L) (8 credits).
Prerequisites: MATH 131 or MATH 212


Biology (BIO*)

$ Supplemental Course Fee : Many science lab courses require a separate fee added at the time of registration in order to cover the cost of additional instructional time, supplies, and materials used by students.

BIO*105, Introduction to Biology (4 credits/6 contact hours) $ Laboratory Course Fee
Gen Ed Competencies: Scientific Knowledge & Understanding, Scientific Reasoning
A course for non-science majors. Topics covered include cell biology,diversity, biotechnology, basic chemistry, cellular respiration and photosynthesis, ecology, genetics, behavior, and evolution. Labs may involve dissection of plant and animal specimens, microscope work, and elementary biochemistry experiments. This course is recommended for students who do not need a full year of laboratory biology. Lecture: 3 hours per week. Laboratory: 3 hours per week. Prerequisites: Eligible for ENG*101 and eligible for MAT*095 (or higher). (Updated October 2014)

BIO*109, Principles of Biotechnology (3 credits)
Gen Ed Competencies: Global Knowledge, Historical Knowledge, Scientific Reasoning

This course provides a basic introduction to the field of biotechnology. Students will gain a broad understanding of the goals, products, practices, regulations, ethics, and career paths in the biotechnology industry. Students will acquire the fundamental knowledge of the biotechnology industry through the introduction of molecular biology, contemporary techniques, and applications. In addition, students will learn about current topics from lectures, as well as guest speakers from industry partners. This course is intended for students in the biotechnology program, as well as students exploring career options in the field of science. Prerequisite: Eligible for ENG*101 . (Updated April 2018)

BIO*110, Principles of the Human Body (3 credits)
Gen Ed Competency: Scientific Knowledge & Understanding

This is an introductory course dealing with the structure and function of the human organism and the issues facing humans in today’s world. It is intended for students with a limited science background. Prerequisite: Eligible for ENG*101 and eligible for MAT*095 or higher. (Updated October 2014)

BIO*111, Introduction to Nutrition (3 credits)
Gen Ed Competency: Scientific Knowledge & Understanding
A study of the science of nutrition including the chemical structure, function, digestion, absorption, and metabolism of nutrients. Class discussion will emphasize how poor dietary habits contribute to the formation of diseases associated with the Western diet. Students critically analyze their own diets with respect to nutritional content and adequacy. Prerequisite: Eligible for ENG*101E or ENG*101 and eligible for MAT*095 or higher. (Updated October 2019)

BIO*115, Human Biology (4 credits/6 contact hours) $ Laboratory Course Fee
Gen Ed Competencies: Scientific Knowledge & Understanding, Scientific Reasoning
This course provides a basic introduction to fundamental biological principles and the structure and function of the human body. Selected topics of relevance to humans will be highlighted through case studies. Application of scientific processes, including the scientific method, analysis of data, and drawing appropriate conclusions will be integrated in the laboratory and classroom setting. This course will serve to provide a foundation in biology enabling the student to become a more informed citizen in science. This course is not open to students who have passed a higher level human anatomy and physiology course. Prerequisite: Eligible for ENG*101 and eligible for MAT*137 or higher. (Updated October 2014)

BIO*118 , Anatomy and Physiology of the Eye (4 credits/6 contact hours)
Open only to students enrolled in the Ophthalmic Design & Dispensing program.
Designed to introduce the student to the basic anatomy and physiology of the eye, this course will include study of the eye and its associated structures.Students will conduct a detailed study of the eyelids and lashes, the orbit,extra ocular muscles, the crystalline lens, the retina, lacrimal apparatus, uveal tract, and the cornea. Included in the course is certification in Adult C.P.R., a segment on A.I.D.S. awareness, and a study of medical abbreviations and commonly used medical prefixes and suffixes. The laboratory component of the course includes dissection of cow’s eye, as well as numerous slide and video presentations of ocular anatomy, physiology and surgery. (Updated October 2014)

BIO*121, General Biology I (4 credits/6 contact hours) $ Laboratory Course Fee
Gen Ed Competencies: Scientific Knowledge & Understanding, Scientific Reasoning
An introduction to the structure and function of cells including, but not limited to, membrane structure and function, basic biochemistry, cellular respiration, photosynthesis, modern genetics, gene expression, and cell division. Recommended for science majors and pre-allied health students. Lecture: 3 hours per week. Laboratory: 3 hours per week. Prerequisite: Eligible for ENG*101 and eligible for MAT*137 or higher. (Updated October 2014)

BIO*122, General Biology II (4 credits/6 contact hours) $ Laboratory Course Fee
Gen Ed Competencies: Scientific Knowledge & Understanding, Scientific Reasoning
A study of the diversity of life including evolution, population genetics,phylogenetics, and an overview of the kingdoms of life. Emphasis on structure,function and evolutionary relationships of organisms. Laboratory involves experimental design and hypothesis testing along with observation of living and preserved specimens, some dissection required. Lecture: 3 hours per week. Laboratory: 3 hours per week. Prerequisites: Eligible for ENG*101 and eligible for MAT*137 or higher. (Updated October 2014)

BIO*145, General Zoology (4 credits/6 contact hours) $ Laboratory Course Fee
Major taxonomic groups of the animal kingdom are studied. Morphology,functional processes, evolutionary relationships and ecology of the various groups are emphasized. Laboratory work encompasses dissection and microscopic examination of appropriate specimens. Lecture: 3 hours per week. Laboratory: 3 hours per week. Prerequisites: Eligible for ENG*101 and eligible for MAT*137 or higher. (Updated October 2014)

BIO*173, Introduction to Ecology (4 credits/6 contact hours) $ Laboratory Course Fee
Gen Ed Competencies: Scientific Knowledge & Understanding, Scientific Reasoning
This course will explore key concepts and principles of ecology – the study of interactions between organisms and their physical, chemical, and biological environment – within an evolutionary framework and the context of human-caused changes to the natural world. Topics include key physical and chemical environmental features and processes organismal adaptations population, community and ecosystem interactionsbiodiversity and biogeography human activities that effect ecosystem processes and biodiversity and the conservation of ecosystems. This course is intended for both environmental science majors and non-majors. Prerequisites: Eligible for ENG*101 and eligible for MAT*095 or higher. (Updated October 2014)

BIO*203, Pathophysiology (3 credits)
Gen Ed Competency: Scientific Knowledge & Understanding

This course provides an introduction to the study of functional changes that accompany human diseases. The purpose of this course is to supply students with basic understanding which will prepare them for the healthcare setting. The most common conditions along with new and emerging diseases will be included. Components of pharmacology will also be included for each category of diseases. Prerequisite: BIO*115 or BIO*212 with a “C” or better. (Updated Spring 2018)

BIO*211, Human Anatomy and Physiology I (4 credits/6 contact hours) $ Laboratory Course Fee
Gen Ed Competencies: Scientific Knowledge & Understanding, Scientific Reasoning
This course is the first semester of a two-semester sequence designed to provide a comprehensive study of human anatomy and physiology. Topics include anatomical terminology,chemistry, cellular and general biological principles, histology, and anin-depth study of the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems.Emphasis is on function and homeostasis.Aging and relevant diseases are also presented. Laboratory dissection and physiology experimentation are coordinated with the lecture material.Dissection is required.Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Prerequisites: ENG*101E or ENG*101 , CHE*111 or higher, and BIO*121 taken within the past 5 years, all with a “C” or better). (Updated October 2014) (Fulfills a “D” course requirement for students who enrolled in a degree program prior to the Fall 2016 semester.)

BIO*212, Human Anatomy and Physiology II (4 credits/6 contact hours) $ Laboratory Course Fee
Gen Ed Competencies: Scientific Knowledge & Understanding, Scientific Reasoning
This course is a continuation of BIO*211 with an emphasis on the anatomy and physiology of the major body systems. Topics include metabolism and energetics,fluid, electrolyte and acid-base balances, development and inheritance, and anin-depth study of the endocrine, cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems. Emphasis is on function and homeostasis. Aging and relevant diseases are also presented.Laboratory dissection and physiology experimentation are coordinated with the lecture material.Dissection is required. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Prerequisite: BIO* 211 with a grade of ‘C’ or better taken within the past five years. (Updated October 2014) (Fulfills an “L” course or “D” course requirement for students who enrolled in a degree program prior to the Fall 2016 semester.)

BIO*222, Molecular Biotechniques (4 credits/6 contact hours) $ Laboratory Course Fee
Gen Ed Competency: Global Knowledge
A laboratory course designed to introduce molecular biology techniques such asplasmid and chromosomal DNA isolation, restriction enzyme mapping, agarose gelelectrophoresis, and manipulation of DNA fragments. Lecture: 3 hours per week. Laboratory: 3 hours per week. Prerequisite: CHE*112 or higher and either BIO*121 or BIO*235. (Updated July 2019)

BIO*235, Microbiology (4 credits/6 contact hours) $ Laboratory Course Fee
Gen Ed Competencies: Scientific Knowledge & Understanding, Scientific Reasoning
This is an introduction to general microbiology.The course is designed to meet the needs of pre-allied health students as well as biology or science majors.Topics include the structure, physiology, and molecular biology of microorganisms as well as the interactions between microbes and their hosts,including their role in the environment.Students also learn how microbes are studied and how they can cause disease and yet are essential to human well-being. There are laboratory exercises each week that will teach the basics of aseptic techniques as well as handling, culturing, and identifying microbes. Lecture: 3 hours per week. Laboratory: 3 hours per week. Prerequisites: ENG*101E or 101 , CHE*111 or higher with a grade of “C” or better, and either BIO*105 or BIO*121 taken within the past five years. All with a grade of “C” or better. (Updated October 2014) (Fulfills an “L” course requirement for students who enrolled in a degree program prior to the Fall 2016 semester.)

BIO*260, Principles of Genetics (3 credits)
This course deals with classical principles of human genetics as well as topics in modern molecular genetics in areas such as recombinant DNA, biotechnology,gene mapping and diagnosis of human genetic diseases. Prerequisite: BIO*121 or BIO*122. (Updated July 2019) (Fulfills an “L” course requirement for students who enrolled in a degree program prior to the Fall 2016 semester.)

BIO*263, Molecular Genetics (4 credits/6 contact hours) $ Laboratory Course Fee
Gen Ed Competencies: Scientific Knowledge & Understanding, Scientific Reasoning
A study of the basic theory and application of classical and molecular genetics including human genetics, Mendelian inheritance, chromosomes, DNA structure and gene expression. The laboratory will emphasize application of genetic principles in model systems and will introduce modern molecular biology techniques such as DNA isolation, restriction enzyme analysis, agarose gel electrophoresis, recombinant DNA techniques and PCR analysis. Lecture: 3 hours per week. Laboratory: 3 hours per week. Prerequisites: CHE*112 or BIO*121 or BIO*235.(Updated July 2019)

BIO*270, Ecology (4 credits/6 contact hours) $ Laboratory Course Fee
A principles oriented investigation of the relationships between organisms and their environments. Structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem,community types, population and succession related field and laboratory investigations. Lecture: 3 hours per week. Laboratory: 3 hours per week. Prerequisite: BIO*122. (Updated October 2014)

BIO*296, Biotechnology Internship (3 credits)
Student will work a minimum of 160 hours in an industrial or research biotechnology laboratory learning new research skills and practicing skills learned in lab classes. Prerequisite: Permission of the program coordinator. (Updated October 2014)


Overview of Body Systems

All body systems are necessary for a complex organism to be able to survive and reproduce. This article will focus on the systems of the human body similar systems are required by all animals, but the details of how they accomplish their tasks may vary.

Functions that must be performed by an animal to stay alive include:

  • Absorbing oxygen for use in cellular respiration
  • Excreting carbon dioxide produced during cellular respiration
  • Ingesting and processing food to obtain sugars and other nutrients.
  • Transporting necessary substances, such as oxygen and nutrients, to all cells in the body
  • Clearing toxic waste products from the body.
  • Responding to changes in the environmental conditions
  • Protecting the organs from the environment.
  • Fighting pathogens

Additionally, for a species to survive, its individuals must be able to reproduce.

How do our organs and tissues work together as systems to accomplish these tasks?


Chemical composition of the body

Chemically, the human body consists mainly of water and of organic compounds—i.e., lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. Water is found in the extracellular fluids of the body (the blood plasma, the lymph, and the interstitial fluid) and within the cells themselves. It serves as a solvent without which the chemistry of life could not take place. The human body is about 60 percent water by weight.

Lipids—chiefly fats, phospholipids, and steroids—are major structural components of the human body. Fats provide an energy reserve for the body, and fat pads also serve as insulation and shock absorbers. Phospholipids and the steroid compound cholesterol are major components of the membrane that surrounds each cell.

Proteins also serve as a major structural component of the body. Like lipids, proteins are an important constituent of the cell membrane. In addition, such extracellular materials as hair and nails are composed of protein. So also is collagen, the fibrous, elastic material that makes up much of the body’s skin, bones, tendons, and ligaments. Proteins also perform numerous functional roles in the body. Particularly important are cellular proteins called enzymes, which catalyze the chemical reactions necessary for life.

Carbohydrates are present in the human body largely as fuels, either as simple sugars circulating through the bloodstream or as glycogen, a storage compound found in the liver and the muscles. Small amounts of carbohydrates also occur in cell membranes, but, in contrast to plants and many invertebrate animals, humans have little structural carbohydrate in their bodies.

Nucleic acids make up the genetic materials of the body. Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA) carries the body’s hereditary master code, the instructions according to which each cell operates. It is DNA, passed from parents to offspring, that dictates the inherited characteristics of each individual human. Ribonucleic acid (RNA), of which there are several types, helps carry out the instructions encoded in the DNA.

Along with water and organic compounds, the body’s constituents include various inorganic minerals. Chief among these are calcium, phosphorus, sodium, magnesium, and iron. Calcium and phosphorus, combined as calcium-phosphate crystals, form a large part of the body’s bones. Calcium is also present as ions in the blood and interstitial fluid, as is sodium. Ions of phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium, on the other hand, are abundant within the intercellular fluid. All of these ions play vital roles in the body’s metabolic processes. Iron is present mainly as part of hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying pigment of the red blood cells. Other mineral constituents of the body, found in minute but necessary concentrations, include cobalt, copper, iodine, manganese, and zinc.


Science

This is an integrated lecture and laboratory course providing a comprehensive study of the anatomy and physiology of the human body. Topics include body organization homeostasis cytology histology and the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic/immune, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems and special senses. Common human disease processes will be studied via the use of case studies. Upon completion, students should be able to demonstrate an in-depth understanding of principles of anatomy and physiology and their interrelationships. Laboratory work includes dissection of preserved specimens, microscopic study, physiologic experiments, computer simulations, and multimedia presentations . This course relies on pre-class assignments and a strong background in biological concepts. P rerequisites required: biology andchemistry.

This course will provide the student with an introduction to the concepts of modern astronomy, the origin and history of the Universe and the formation of the Earth and the solar system. Students will compare the Earth's properties with those of the other planets and explore how the heavens have influenced human thought and action. The course gives a description of astronomical phenomena using the laws of physics. The course treats many standard topics including planets, stars, the Milky Way and other galaxies, black holes to more esoteric questions concerning the origin of the universe and its evolution and fate. Although largely descriptive, the course will occasionally require the use of sophomore-high level mathematics. Laboratory exercises include experiments in light properties, measurement of radiation from celestial sources, and observations at local observatories and/or planetariums.

The Biology curriculum is designed to continue student investigations of the life sciences that began in grades K-8 and provide students the necessary skills to be proficient in biology. This curriculum includes more abstract concepts such as the interdependence of organisms, the relationship of matter, energy, and organization in living systems, the behavior of organisms, and biological evolution. Students investigate biological concepts through experience in laboratories and field work using the processes of inquiry.

NOTE: The honors level of this class covers each of the state standards however, the concepts are taught to a much deeper level of understanding. The course focuses on preparing students for Advanced Placement biology, which many students take during their sophomore year. Students are held to a very high standard and expected to be well adept at completing work, learning material, and developing study tools outside of the classroom. Tests are designed to be more “AP” in style and include long and short free responses, so there is more writing and mathematical calculation involved. Students must earn a recommendation from their 8 th grade physical science teacher to be placed in honors biology.

This AP Biology course is equivalent to a two-semester college introductory biology course and furthers student knowledge from a previous high school biology course. We build on content learned in the honors biology course and learn to apply that information in a inquiry based setting. The course requires analytical thinking and basic mathematical skills. The content is organized around evolution, cellular processes, genetics, and interactions between organisms and their environment, with emphasis on science practices, including inquiry and reasoning. Students are expected to take the AP Exam administered annually in May.

The Chemistry curriculum is designed to continue student investigations of the physical sciences that began in grades K-8 and provide students the necessary skills to be proficient in chemistry. This curriculum includes more abstract concepts such as the structure of atoms, structure and properties of matter, and the conservation and interaction of energy and matter. Students investigate chemistry concepts through experience in laboratories and field work using the processes of inquiry.

NOTE: The honors level of this class covers each of the state standards however, the concepts are taught to a much deeper level of understanding and additional content is covered. The course focuses on preparing students for Advanced Placement chemistry, which many students take during their junior year. Students are held to a very high standard and expected to be well adept at completing work, learning material, and developing study tools outside of the classroom. Tests are designed to be more “AP” in style and include long and short free responses, so there is more writing and mathematical calculation involved. Students must earn a recommendation from their 9 th grade biology teacher to be placed in honors chemistry.

AP Chemistry

This course is designed to be the equivalent of the general chemistry course usually taken during the first college year. Students will gain an in-depth understanding of fundamentals of chemical concepts as well as a reasonable competence in dealing with chemical problems, especially in the laboratory. Topics to be addressed include the scientific method, the structure of matter, the states of matter, reactions, and descriptive chemistry. Students will develop their abilities to think clearly and express their ideas, orally and in writing, with clarity and logic. Students will be able to utilize the scientific method to complete laboratory assignments, as well as demonstrate skills gained in the lab. Students are expected to make an acceptable score on the AP Chemistry exam in May. This course requires a rigorous college level lab component and utilizes a college text.

Earth Systems

Earth Systems Science is designed to continue student investigations that began in K-8 Earth Science and Life Science curricula and investigate the connections among Earth’s systems through Earth history. These systems – the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere – interact through time to produce the Earth’s landscapes, ecology, and resources. This course develops the explanations of phenomena fundamental to the sciences of geology and physical geography, including the early history of the Earth, plate tectonics, landform evolution, the Earth’s geologic record, weather and climate, and the history of life on Earth. Instruction should focus on inquiry and development of scientific explanations, rather than mere descriptions of phenomena. Case studies, laboratory exercises, maps, and data analysis should be integrated into units. Special attention should be paid to topics of current interest (e.g., recent earthquakes, tsunamis, global warming, price of resources) and to potential careers in the geosciences.

Environmental Science

The Environmental Science curriculum is designed to extend student investigations that began in grades K-8. This curriculum is extensively performance, lab and field based. It integrates the study of many components of our environment, including the human impact on our planet. Instruction should focus on student data collection and analysis. Some concepts are global in those cases, interpretation of global data sets from scientific sources is strongly recommended. It would be appropriate to utilize resources on the Internet for global data sets and interactive models. Chemistry, physics, mathematical, and technological concepts should be integrated throughout the course. Whenever possible, careers related to environmental science should be emphasized

AP Environmental Science

The goal of the AP Environmental Science course is to provide students with the scientific principles, concepts, and methodologies required to understand the interrelationships of the natural world, to identify and analyze environmental problems both natural and human-made, to evaluate the relative risks associated with these problems, and to examine alternative solutions for resolving and/or preventing them. Environmental science is interdisciplinary it embraces a wide variety of topics from different areas of study. Yet there are several major unifying constructs, or themes, that cut across the many topics included in the study of environmental science, such as science is a process energy conversions underlie all ecological processes the Earth itself is one interconnected system humans alter natural systems environmental problems have a cultural and social context and human survival depends on developing practices that will achieve sustainable systems. Students are expected to take the AP Exam administered annually in May.

Forensic Science

The Forensic Science curriculum is designed to build upon science concepts and to apply science to the investigation of crime scenes. It serves as a fourth year of science for graduation and may serve in selected Career Technology programs. Students will learn the scientific protocols for analyzing a crime scene, how to use chemical and physical separation methods to isolate and identify materials, how to analyze biological evidence and the criminal use of tools, including impressions from firearms, tool marks, arson, and explosive evidence.

Oceanography

The Oceanography curriculum is designed to emphasize the interconnectedness of multiple science disciplines and the power to stimulate learning and comprehension across broad scales. Thus, students must have a basis in the major disciplines of physics, chemistry, geology, and biology, from which this cross-disciplinary thinking can be nurtured. Students will recognize that the ocean is a dynamic system reflecting interactions among organisms, ecosystems, chemical cycles, and physical and geological processes, on land, in air, and in the oceans. Students will investigate oceanography concepts through experience in laboratories and fieldwork using the processes of inquiry.

The Physics curriculum is designed to continue student investigations of the physical sciences that began in grades K-8 and provide students the necessary skills to be proficient in physics. This curriculum includes more abstract concepts such as interactions of matter and energy, velocity, acceleration, force, energy, momentum, and charge. Students investigate physics concepts through experience in laboratories and field work using the processes of inquiry.

AP Physics 1

The AP Physics 1 course is designed to enable you to develop the ability to reason about physical phenomena using important science process skills such as explaining causal relationships, applying and justifying the use of mathematical routines, designing experiments, analyzing data and making connections across multiple topics within the course. This AP Physics 1 course is equivalent to the first semester of a typical introductory, algebra-based physics course. The key concepts and related content that define the AP Physics 1 course and exam are organized around seven underlying principles, which encompass the core scientific principles, theories and processes of physics that cut across traditional content boundaries and give you a broad way of thinking about the physical world. These topics include: mass and charge object interactions with fields and forces conservation laws waves and behavior of quantum mechanical systems.

AP Physics C

This course ordinarily forms the first part of the college sequence that serves as the foundation in physics for students majoring in the physical sciences or engineering. The sequence is parallel to or preceded by mathematics courses that include calculus. Methods of calculus are used wherever appropriate in formulating physical principles and in applying them to physical problems. Strong emphasis is placed on solving a variety of challenging problems, some requiring calculus. The subject matter of the AP Physics C: Mechanics course is classical mechanics and includes topics in kinematics Newton’s laws of motion, work, energy and power systems of particles and linear momentum circular motion and rotation oscillations and gravitation. The AP Physics C: Mechanics course is the first part of a sequence which in college is sometimes a very intensive one-year course but often extends over one and one-half to two years, with a laboratory component. Use of calculus in problem solving and in derivations is expected to increase as the course progresses. Calculus is used freely in formulating principles and in solving problems. Please note: Although fewer topics are covered in Physics C than in Physics 1, they are covered in greater depth and with greater analytical and mathematical sophistication, including calculus applications.