Liquid that comes out raw mangoes

What is the composition of the liquid that comes out of a raw mango when you break it off from its stem? It oozes out some sort of juicy liquid. Any idea what that is?

Also, is it edible?

It is the sap; you can see the composition of the sap (of Indian mangoes) in this article. Some plants also produce latex from injury sites. The mango sap is not supposed to be eaten as it can irritate the skin; a condition referred to as Mango Dermatitis.

Fruits That Ruin Jell-O and Other Gelatin Desserts

If you add certain fruits to Jell-O or other gelatin desserts, the gelatin won't set up. Here's a look at which fruits have this effect and what happens that causes them to ruin Jell-O.

Key Takeaways: Fruits That Ruin Gelatin

  • Some fresh fruits prevent Jell-O and other types of gelatin from gelling.
  • These are fruits that contain high levels of proteases. Proteases are enzymes that break chemical bonds in proteins, such as collagen in gelatin.
  • Pineapple, kiwi, papaya, mango, and guava are examples of fruits that cause a problem.
  • Heat inactivates proteases, so cooking fruit before adding it to gelatin prevents any issue. Canned fruit has been heated, so it is also acceptable for use in gelatin desserts.

Causes And Prevention Of Premature Falling of Mango Fruits

Learn how to prevent mango flowers and fruits from falling by proper mango flower drop management. Many times it so happens that there are plenty of mango tree flowers but no fruits, so what to do if the tree does not produce fruits. Causes of premature and untimely fall of mango fruits from the tree are discussed and the tips to prevent fruit dropping. Improper watering, fertilizer and diseases may be the reason of deflowering in mango, banana trees and other fruit trees.

When my young mango tree in its 3rd year, it produced about 25 fruits for the first time, it was a matter of joy and excitement for me. I used to watch them daily growing slowly.

Mangoes Ripening on Tree

But after a few weeks, I noticed about half of them fell down after a storm. I was very sad to see that ultimately only two mangoes matured, but both were very very tasty! The question is in spite of so many flowers, the tree do not produce fruits because most of the fruits drop at an early stage. What causes premature fruit drop?

When I saw tiny baby mangoes falling from tree prematurely, then it was a matter of concern, however fruit drop in mango tree, specially in a young mango tree is quite common.

Causes of Premature Dropping of Fruits

The natural question is why mango fruits fall down in the garden prematurely? There are several causes of fruit drop as discussed below.

Dropping is Natural Process

The initial falling of mangoes from stalks is quite common and not due to any insects or other problem [1]. A tree cannot support all the heavy fruit set, only a certain percentage of it can mature to full size fruit. Dropping of some mango fruits is a normal thinning process of tree to properly utilize the available nutrients. The immature fruits are all competing for the available food and water. The strongest will survive.

There are, however, many factors that may be responsible for the tree to shed its fruits. The weather, dry weather or too much rain, high temperatures, inadequate soil moisture, lack of pollination and ovule abortion, embryo degeneration, pests, insects, diseases, lack of fertilizer, failure of fertilization, wrong time of fertilization and low photosynthate level can cause the young fruits to fall off [2].


Getting right amount of water is an important factor for the growth of a mango trees. Too much water can cause fruit dropping prematurely. Note that a mature mango tree do not require frequent watering. For a young tree, water about two times a week in the first year and thereafter after 4-5 days.


  1. Mango trees grow well in warm tropical climates. However, a mature tree can withstand low temperatures.
  2. Cover the tree to protect it from frost. Do not prune dead branches if the frost continues.
  3. The mango tree fruit may fall if there was a cold weather during bloom and fruit set. The cold damages the developing embryo in the seed, due to which the ethylene gas given off by the damaged embryo causes fruits to drop before maturity.


  1. Another reason for premature dropping of mangoes from a tree is improper or over fertilization.
  2. Use a complete fertilizer developed for fruit trees, with correct ratios of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K). Fertilise your tree with a fertilizer that has a higher P and K ratio. Too much nitrogen will damage flowers.
  3. You can also give an organic fertilizer to feed the tree.
  4. Regularly add organic compost to the plant.


Severe pruning of the mango tree may reduce fruit production for many fruiting cycles. Pruning should, therefore, only be done to remove broken or diseased plant stems and leaves.

Mango Diseases & How to Treat Them?

  1. Fungal disease such as anthracnose, Gummosis, sooty mold, and powdery mildew [3] on the tree can cause premature dropping of mango fruit. The anthracnose disease attacks all parts of the mango tree making black spots on leaves, flowers and even fuits (video on how to control black spot disease on mango tree), but does the most damage to the flower panicles, so it is the most dangerous disease resulting in less or no fruiting. Due to anthracnose, the infected mango fruits drop early from the tree and fruit that initially appears unaffected quickly decays upon ripening and also the tree start losing leaves.
  2. Due to powdery mildew fruit, foliage and stems are covered with a white powdery substance, whereas anthracnose causes dark spots on leaves.
  3. As the fallen diseased twigs, leaves and fruits on the ground are a potential source of infection, never allow them to remain on the ground for too long. Prune dead branches and leaves from the tree regularly to avoid any disease to the tree.
  4. Dispose of all infected parts of the plant in the rubbish or burn them.
  5. Keep the area around the plant as weed free as possible.
  6. Use a fungicide if the fungal problem persists. If the tree is already affected by anthracnose, and/or powdery mildew infection, it is too late to spray for these now. To avoid these fungal disease problems in the future, spray trees when they begin to form flower spikes.
  7. For anthracnose, spray a copper fungicide and use a sulfur fungicide for powdery mildew. The Mango anthracnose can be controlled by an organic spray of garlic or ginger or turmeric. Grind and add to water with some liquid dish washing soap.

Hormonal Causes of Fruit Falling

About 50-70% of the mango fruits fail to mature and fall off because of the formation of abscission layer in their stalks, known as fruitlet abscission. Abscisic acid (ABA) is possibly involved in fruitlet abscission.

The abscission is result of fruit complex physiological phenomena during the first 3-4 weeks after pollination and accounts for over 90% loss of set fruitlets [4].

How To Prevent Mango Fruit Dropping

If you can identify the cause of your premature dropping of the fruit, then you can try to isolate the cause and treat that to stop fruit dropping. Then how to prevent mango flowers and fruits from falling?

Spray of Hormones

The fruit drop in mango tree can be controlled by applying some hormones. Spray of some hormones on blooms ensures fruit setting. Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) and Gibberellic acid (GA3) are the most effective for improving fruit retention.

In a study in Ghana, the spray of GA3 (25 ppm) and NAA (25 ppm) resulted in increasing fruit set, fruit retention, fruit weight and yield [5].

Initial fruit set was substantially increased when sprays of 200 mg/l indole acetic acid (IAA) were applied to developing panicles [6,7].

On a study on Australian Kensington Pride mango, polyamines spray Spermine (SPM) (0.01mM) onto the mango panicles at full bloom stage resulted in reduced heavy fruitlet abscission and improved fruit yield [8].

If you follow the following tip, I am sure you will have a very good crop of healthy mangoes. I am following this tip and my mango tree is producing several mangoes every year, each weighing more than 300 g.

Tip: Fruit drop in mango can be controlled by a spray. As soon as you see the mango flowers to appear, spray the flowers with eco oil or pest oil, every week on flowers and growing mangoes. Continue this until the fruits grow to a large size, stop the spray at least 2 weeks before you intend to cut the fruits from the mango tree.

How can you use the fallen unripe mangoes?

  1. Use them in coriander-mint chutney.
  2. Peel, chop and use them in salads.
  3. Peel, chop an use them in sweet mango chutney.
  4. Use them in making a mango drink, known as Pana in India. Pana drink is beneficial in summer.

Mango Videos

If you like making gelatin for dessert, you might have noticed that the box recommends against adding certain kinds of fruit, such as papaya and pineapple, which are shown in Figure 1 below, as well as other fruits, like kiwi, mango, ginger root, figs, or guava. But why? What happens when you add these fruits to your gelatin? Why can you use some fruits, but not others? You will find out for yourself in this science fair project, but if you do a bit of background reading first, you are likely to find that people have a hard time getting the gelatin to solidify when they add certain fruits. To discover why, you first need to know a little about what gelatin is and how it normally sets.

Figure 1. When making a gelatin dessert, the packaging may recommend against using certain fruits, like papaya (shown on the left here) and pineapple (shown cut up on the right). This is because including these fruits can make it difficult for the gelatin to solidify.

Gelatin is made from a protein called collagen. Proteins are a basic type of matter that make up all living things. Your skin, your blood, your hair&mdash all of these are made up of many different types of proteins. One of those proteins is collagen. Collagen is a structural protein found in all animals, meaning that it helps give animals their structure, or shape. Collagen can be found in many parts of your body, including your skin, bones, muscles, and cartilage. Gelatin is a mixture of collagen proteins that have undergone a chemical reaction that makes them able to solidify when you are cooking with them. When you make a gelatin dessert, you dissolve the gelatin mix in hot water. The collagen proteins in the gelatin are like microscopic (meaning too small to see with just your eyes) strands of spaghetti. These long, thin, flexible proteins tangle up with one another, the same way strands of cooked spaghetti do when they are all in one pot together. As the gelatin proteins tangle, they form mesh pockets that trap the water, sugar, and other flavoring agents that you have added to your dessert. When the gelatin is cooled, the proteins remain tangled. The end result is a wiggly-jiggly solid to enjoy.

Now, back to our original question. What happens when you add fruit to your gelatin? Some fruits, like strawberries, oranges, and apples, are a tasty addition the gelatin solidifies around the chunks of fruit. But if you add fruits like pineapple, guava, mango, or kiwi, you end up with a runny mess that never solidifies. Figure 2 below shows some of these fruits in an orange gelatin dessert. It turns out that this second group of fruits all contain proteases (pronounced PROH-tee-ay-siz), like papain (pronounced puh-PIE-uhn) and bromelain (pronounced BROH-muh-lin). Proteases are enzymes, which are a special group of proteins that help make certain chemical reactions happen. Proteases specifically act like a pair of scissors, helping reactions take place that cut other proteins up. Could it be that the papain and bromelain in these fruits are cutting the gelatin proteins into such small pieces that they are no longer able to tangle together and create a solid structure? This is exactly the question you will tackle in this science fair project.

Figure 2. Some fruits, like strawberries (on the left), allow gelatin to solidify around them, while others, like pineapple (on the right), do not allow the gelatin to solidify. Pineapples contain special enzymes called proteases. In this science project you will investigate whether the proteases are responsible for the gelatin not solidifying.

In this food science project, you will see for yourself whether one of these protease-containing fruits interferes with gelatin's ability to solidify and, if it does, you will test whether it is the protease that interferes with solidifying by inactivating the protease (which means to make it stop working) in the fruit and then adding the fruit to the gelatin. You might be wondering how you will possibly inactivate the protease yourself. Remember that proteases, like papain and bromelain, are also proteins themselves. Most proteins can be inactivated using a variety of methods. One such method is called denaturation. Denaturation changes the structure, or shape, of the protein, without changing what it is made up of. Exposure to heat is one method of denaturing proteins. A good example of this process is cooking an egg. When the egg is raw, the egg white&mdash which has lots of proteins, called albumins&mdash is transparent and liquid but after cooking, it becomes opaque and solid. In the case of eggs (and most proteases), denaturation of the protein causes an irreversible change. The heat will permanently inactivate the fruit's protease. Does this allow the gelatin to solidify or not? Ready to find out? If so, get out your spoon, because with this science fair project, you will get to enjoy some of your results as dessert!

Commercial Processing of Mangoes

Essentially a prime table fruit, mango pulp is perfectly suited for conversion to juices, nectars, drinks, jams, fruit cheese or to be had by itself or with cream as a superb dessert. It can also be used in puddings, bakery fillings, and fruit meals for children, flavours for food industry, and also to make the most delicious ice cream and yoghurt. While the raw fruits are utilized for products like chutney, pickle, amchoor (mango powder), green mango beverage, etc. ripe ones are used in making pulp, juice, nectar, squash, leather, slices, etc. Major export products include dried and preserved vegetables, mango and other fruit pulp, jams, fruit jellies, canned fruits and vegetables, dehydrated vegetables, frozen fruits, vegetables and pulp, freeze dried products and traditional Indian products like pickles and chutneys.

Processed mangoes enable exporters to serve their markets even during off-season period for fresh mangoes. Ripe mangoes may be frozen whole or peeled, sliced and packed in sugar (1 part sugar to 10 parts mango by weight) and quick-frozen in moisture-proof containers. The diced flesh of ripe mangoes, bathed in sweetened or unsweetened lime juice, to prevent discoloration, can be quick-frozen, as can sweetened ripe or green mango puree. Immature mangoes are often blown down by spring winds. Half-ripe or green mangoes are peeled and sliced as filling for pie, used for jelly, or made into sauce, which, with added milk and egg whites, can be converted into mango sherbet. Green mangoes are peeled, sliced, parboiled, then combined with sugar, salt, various spices and cooked, sometimes with raisins or other fruits, to make chutney or they may be salted, sun-dried and kept for use in chutney and pickles. Thin slices, seasoned with turmeric, are dried, and sometimes powdered, and used to impart an acid flavour to chutneys, vegetables and soup. Green or ripe mangoes may be used to make relish (Morton, 1987).

Industrial Processing Possibilities

Several options have become available for large scale processing of mango products.

1. Mango pulp

2. Juice (See Figure 36 Mango Juice)

4. Fruit sauces

5. Fruit cocktails

6. Dried mango slices

7. Mango wine

9. Flavoured yoghurt (See Figure 37 Mango yoghurt)

10. Ice cream

Pulping and juicing

A key step for preparation of the above products is pulping, as described below. Flowcharts are included which depict the manufacturing steps for mango products.

1. Fruit selection. Several requirements need to be met:

  • Lack of insect infestation
  • Lack of mechanical injuries
  • Stage of maturity
  • Uniform colour and texture
  • Minimum soluble solids of 13 ° Brix
  • pH value of 3.5 to 4.0

The receiving area must be clean, well ventilated, and free of insects, rodents or other animals. It is not advisable to hold the fruits too long before processing to avoid spoilage.

The washing pit should be filled with water containing 15 ppm chlorine in order to reduce microbial load and impurities from the fruit. A second washing with clean water is made to eliminate residual chlorine.

3. Blanching

This operation is done to inactivate enzymes, eliminate air inside the fruit tissues, remove off-flavours and aromas, fix fruit colour and soften the tissues for further pulping.

Two methods are currently used to effect blanching: dip in boiling water or direct steam injection. The thermal treatment is applied such that internal fruit temperature reaches 75°C. This usually requires 10 minutes in boiling water, or 6 minutes with steam. Fruit is blanched unpeeled.

4. Peeling and cutting

Pulp is separated from the seed manually with knives made of stainless steel, on a working bench. Mango pieces are placed in clean plastic containers and taken to the pulping machine.

Mesocarp pieces are passed through a fine mesh to remove undesirable particles. After pulping, a smooth puree is obtained. Recommended mesh size is 0.5 mm. coarser material is separated in the process and disposed properly. The pulp is transferred in containers to the kettle.

6. Thermal treatment

A heat treatment is applied in the kettle to prevent chemical and microbial spoilage. In this treatment the pulp reaches 95 ° C and is held for 10 min. with continuous stirring.

7. Additives

The use of additives is recommended to extend the pulp shelf life. Commonly used additives include 0.39 percent citric acid to decrease pH and prevent microbial growth and enhance effectiveness of preservatives as sodium benzoate (0.5 percent).

To prevent discoloration 0.1 percent ascorbic acid is used as antioxidant. Additives are incorporated to the pulp right before the thermal treatment is finished (ca. 5 min before) by dispersing in hot water or pulp and proper stirring. Final product should have 13 °Brix and pH values between 3.4 to 3.5.

The pulp is packed when hot in plastic containers, sealed immediately and flipped over so the internal part of the lid gets in contact with the hot product. All packing materials must be clean before used.

Hot containers are cooled with fresh water at the lowest temperature attainable. After cooling, lid closings should be inspected. Finally, containers are cleaned and labels affixed to be sent to a fresh, clean storage place.

Specification of Alphonso Mango Pulp

Microbial Characteristics

Dryers around the world are using improved methods to make all sorts of new dried fruit products. Many of these make great natural snacks. Mango is delicious as a snack, in a sauce or in a salad. Snacks are packed in transparent plastic bags. (See Figure 38 Tommy Atkins mango stripes) mangoes are dried in the form of pieces, powders, and flakes. Drying procedures such as sun drying, tray drying (See Figure 39 Tray dryer) tunnel dehydration, vacuum drying, osmotic dehydration may be used. Packaged and stored properly, dried mango products are stable and nutritious.

One described process involves as pretreatment dipping mango slices for 18 hr (ratio 1:1) in a solution containing 40°Brix sugar, 3 000 ppm SO2, 0.2 percent ascorbic acid and 1 percent citric acid this method is described as producing the best dehydrated product. Drying is described using an electric cabinet through flow dryer operated at 60°C. The product showed no browning after 1 year of storage.

Drum drying (See Figure 40 Drum dryer) of mango purée is described as an efficient, economical process for producing dried mango powder and flakes. Its major drawback is that the severity of heat pre-processing can produce undesirable cooked flavours and aromas in the dried product. The drum-dried products are also extremely hygroscopic and the use of in-package desiccant is recommended during storage. The stone removed, the fruit is cut in slices, dried and afterwards ground to a pale grey powder. This powder is used frequently instead of tamarind, the other important sour element in Indian cuisine mango powder is, however, much weaker than tamarind and has a subtle, resin-like taste. It is mainly used when only a hint of tartness is desired or when the dark brown colour of tamarind is to be avoided. Mango powder is generally more popular with vegetables than with meat, but is frequently found in tikka spice mixtures for barbecued meat. To prepare the barbecued meat of Northern Indian cuisine, an Indian clay oven (tandoor) is required, but substitution by a Western baking oven is acceptable. Meat to be grilled is seasoned with a mixture of several spices (cumin, coriander, fresh ginger, garlic and mango powder, but little or no chiles) with red food colouring and plain yoghurt. After a few hours, it is quickly roasted in the very hot tandoor. Mango powder here serves not only as a tart and sour spice, but also as a meat tenderizer.

Ripe mangoes are a popular fruit and may be used for stewed fruits, fruit jam, fruitcakes and many other standard fruit applications they can, however, even used for savoury dishes. Indonesian fruit salad (rujak) combines fresh fruits (not too ripe mango, pineapple, papaya, in Java frequently cucumber) with a pungent sauce of palm sugar (won from coconut or other palm trees), fresh red chiles and salt on Bali, a hint of shrimp paste is never omitted. The result tastes even more delicious that the recipe looks strange! Mexicans sometimes use ripe mangoes or other tropical fruits for their fiery salsas (Katzer, 2000).

Mango fruits have been utilized for long time at every stage of growth. While the raw fruits are utilized for products like pickle, amchoor, green mango beverage, etc. ripe ones are used in making pulp, juice, nectar, squash, leather, slices, etc.

Raw mango products

Mango fruits during early stages of growth are commonly used for sweet or sour chutney. As the fruits attain stone hardening stage, they become suitable for some other useful products like amchoor (seasoning made by pulverizing sun-dried, unripe (green) mango into a fine powder. Amchoor has a tart, acidic, fruity flavour that adds character to many dishes including meats, vegetables and curried preparations. It’s also used to tenderize poultry, meat and fish), pickle, etc.

Ripe mango products

Ripe mango fruit has a characteristic blend of taste and flavour. It contains important amounts of sugar, pectin, carotenoids, etc. Due to comparatively shorter storage life of mango fruits, it is essential to prepare their products immediately.

Mango Leather or Aam Papad: Homogenized mango pulp is prepared and potassium metabisulphite is added to it at a rate of 2 g/kg of pulp. The pulp is then spread on trays smeared without and kept for drying in solar dehydrator or sun. After drying of one layer, another layer is spread over it and dried. The process is repeated until the desired thickness is attained. Finally the leather slabs are cut into pieces and wrapped in butter paper or plastic sheets.

Fresh-cut Mangoes

Mangoes could be an attractive addition to the growing market for fresh-cut produce, but browning and drying have prevented such marketing. Researchers at the USDA-ARS Horticultural Crops Quality Laboratory found that fresh-cut mangoes could be preserved by treating the slices with a combination of hexylresorcinol, isoascorbic acid and potassium sorbate (all food-safe compounds derived from natural products) and storing the slices in plastic containers to prevent drying. Treating whole fruits with methyl jasmonate (an inexpensive product derived from plant essential oils) prevented the development of chilling injury during cold storage and hence markedly increased fruit quality after storage. The treatment worked on fruits at various stages of maturity and had no effect on ripening, softening processes or water loss.

Canned mangoes do not have to meet any specific standards, but CODEX Alimentarius (Latin, meaning Food Law or Code, UN Commission for Food Standards) is developing international standards. In general, mangoes are processed in cans or in glass jars. FDA requires nutritional facts written on containers. Mangoes are the common product name of the canned food that is made from properly prepared fresh mango varieties, that have the peel (rind), stems and pits (stones) removed shall be packed in a packing medium consisting of water, with or without a sweetening ingredient, or natural reconstituted, concentrated fruit juice or juices, or fruit puree or nectar, with or without a sweetening ingredient and may contain: pectin, a suitable acid ingredient, calcium-based firming agents, and beta-carotene.

Styles. The styles of mangoes are: halves, if the mango is cut into two approximately equal parts along the pit or stone from stem to apex slices, if the mango is cut into long, slender pieces either lengthwise or crosswise diced, if the mango is cut into approximately cube-shaped pieces with at least 12 millimetres on the longest side and pieces, mixed pieces or irregular pieces, if the mango is cut into pieces of irregular shape and size.

Quality Standards: have a colour that is typical of the variety have a characteristic flavour and aroma of properly prepared, properly processed canned mangoes in the case of “slices” style, these shall be reasonably uniform in size, and in the case of “halves” style, have at least 90 per cent by count of the units approximately the same size in the case of “halves” and “slices” styles, shall not have more than 20 per cent of the units cut other than parallel to the crease, and not have more than half of those units cut horizontally have units that are reasonably fleshy with little objectionable fibre, and not excessively soft or excessively firm, and in a 500 g sample of the drained product, not contain more than: six square centimetres in the aggregate of rind, one-eighth of a stone equivalent of pit material, and one piece of harmless extraneous plant material not greater than 10 millimetres in any dimension and not have more than 30 per cent by count of units that: are blemished by discolouration or dark spots on the surface or that penetrate into the flesh, or in the case of “halves” and “slices” styles, have trim damage with gouges in the units serious enough to detract from the appearance of the product, and five per cent by drained weight of units that are crushed and severed into two or more parts or have lost their normal shape. Mangoes, when properly packed, shall have a minimum drained weight that is not less than 55 per cent of the weight of distilled water at 20°C that the sealed container will hold when full. Varieties most suited for canning include Creole, Mora, Filipino, Irwin and Haden.

Season Updates

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Culinary Applications

Osmosis of strawberries with sugar has important culinary implications, including for methods of storing the fruit. Because of the high moisture content of strawberries, the fruits are highly susceptible to molding. Using the osmosis property of sugar on strawberries helps draw out the moisture, and extends their shelf life. Methods include storing in a simple syrup, creating a jam, or even storing them in a dry sugar pack. Alternatively, osmosis can help turn the fruits into a dish of macerated strawberries.

Shea butter: How to prevent shea from going grainy

While each plant-based butter is given a general melting point (e.g. Shea butter has a melting point of 89 to 100°F), the melting point can be a poor descriptor because butters are made up of fatty acids each with differing melting points. For instance, when melting Shea butter the linolenic, arachidic and linoleic acids melt very quickly (they are actually responsible for the slightly ‘moist’ quality of the butter), then the oleic acid, then lauric, then palmitic and finally stearic acid. You can imagine if they melt at different rates they will also solidify at different rates as the butter is cooled.

When a butter, such as shea or mango, is heated the fatty acids separate from one another. Then if you cool the butter slowly, these fractions stay separate causing shea butter to go grainy. Other reasons your shea butter may go grainy include: “the way you’re storing it, the way your supplier is storing it, and possible melting and cooling while shipping from the supplier or from the manufacturer to the supplier.” (Barclay, 2011)

Lets review fatty acids:

Fats and oils consists of up to 95% fatty acids. Fatty acids are hydrocarbons and consist of the elements carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) arranged as a carbon chain skeleton with a carboxyl group (-COOH) at one end.

There are three types of fatty acids:

Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms attached to every carbon atom and is therefore said to be ‘saturated’ with hydrogen atoms. Saturated fatty acid oils are solid at room temperature. Examples of oils rich in saturated fatty acids include: shea, cocoa and mango all have a high content of saturated fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids have high melting points. Butters are solid because they contain more saturated fats then vegetable oils.

The unsaturated fatty acids have lower melting points than the saturated fatty acids.

Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) are fatty acids that are missing one pair of hydrogen atoms in the middle of the molecule. MUFAs have only one double bond. One of the most common monounsaturated fatty acids is oleic acid. If you think about oils rich in oleic acid they tend to be fluid unless you put them in the fridge or worse, freezer, at which point they will solidify. Oleic acid rich vegetable oils are also more stable against heat.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fatty acids with two or more carbon double bonds. Examples of polyunsaturated fatty acids include alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid. These two fatty acids are considered to be Essential fatty acids (EFAs) as the body does not manufacture them rather they must be taken in the form of food or applied to the skin. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are very unstable and can easily oxidize if exposed to oxygen and light. The presence of tocopherols in oils rich in PUFAs may contribute to their lipid stability. PUFAs include Omega 3 and 6 fatty acids.

Complete Chart of Fatty Acids, Melting Points and Butter %

Avoiding exotic butter formulation pitfalls

Formulating with exotic butters September 2008 – James J. Ramirez, Larry S. Moroni – BioChemica International, USA **To access this article you will need to create a free account on the personal care magazine site. It can be found here:

“Cooling rates are important when formulating with exotic butters. This is because a butter’s texture and consistency is directly related to its crystalline structure, all of which are directly affected by its initial cooling rate. As discussed earlier, butters are a mixture of solid (saturated) fatty acids and liquid (often unsaturated) fatty acids. It is this “marriage” between liquid and solid components that is disrupted during the heating and cooling process” (Ramirez and Moroni, 2008). As with an emulsion, particle size (or in the case of butters, crystal size) will have a lot to do with how the butter feels.

If you take a hard, smooth butter and subject it to various temperatures of heat and then various rates of cooling you will have multiple physical expressions of that butter that may range from soft and slightly grainy to a feeling of a semi-solid with grit-like particles being held in it. This is because the solid components of a butter form a crystal matrix that can be visualized as a web of interlocking strands. The smaller and tighter this matrix is, the harder and smoother the butter will be. A smooth butter has been subjected to cooling rates that are optimal for a homogenous mixture of solid and liquid fractions.

Crystallization problems occur when the cooling rate allows for a very gradual reconstitution of this crystal matrix. The interlocking solid strands of the butter that would normally be locking in the liquid fractions within its matrix or web start bonding together in clumps. The result is a butter that has disproportionate levels of solid with solid, and liquid with liquid. This is the cause of problems like leaching and graininess that can be found in butters from time to time.

For Butters and Balms: If a butter’s natural physical properties are desired in an anhydrous formula, then rapid cooling prior to filling, or freezing after hot pouring is recommended. This is specifically for products containing more then 50% shea or similar butters.

For Whipped Butters: The best way to whip a butter that has been melted is to place the melted mixture into the freezer for about 10-20 minutes until the mixture has almost solidified. Then, using a hand held mixer or kitchen aid, whip the ‘solid’ mixture for about 15-25 minutes. The longer you whisk the fluffier the whipped butter will be.

For Body Butters: This takes some degree of experimenting however I have found that typically once all ingredients have been melted down, you can then pour the mixture into jars, close up jars and place in refrigerator for up to 12-24 hours.

Liquid that comes out raw mangoes - Biology

It has all the makings of a delicious smoothie – a dollop of almond butter, an avocado, a few slices of mango, a handful of blueberries, a sprinkle of cocoa powder and perhaps a glug of soya milk.

As a tasty, vegan-friendly drink to start your day, it is packed with nutrients and will do wonders for your health. But it may be doing far less good for the planet.

There is no doubt that meat – beef in particular – makes an unsurpassable contribution to the planet’s greenhouse gas emissions. It also devours more land and water and causes more environmental damage than any other single food product. The recent rigorous report by the EAT-Lancet Commission recommends reducing our consumption of animal products to not only benefit human health, but the health of our planet. Even the “greenest” sources of meat still produce more greenhouse gases than plant-based proteins.

But anyone looking to adopt a vegan or vegetarian diet for environmental reasons may also want to consider whether there are some plant-based foods that also come with a heavy price.

“Nothing really compares to beef, lamb, pork, and dairy – these products are in a league of their own in the level of damage they typically do to the environment, on almost every environmental issue we track,” says Joseph Poore, a researcher at the University of Oxford who studies the environmental impacts of food. “But it’s essential to be mindful about everything we consume: air-transported fruit and veg can create more greenhouse gas emissions per kilogram than poultry meat, for example."

Delicate fruits like blueberries and strawberries, for example, are often imported to Europe and the US by air to fill gaps left when local fruit are out of season. Research by Angelina Frankowska, who studies sustainability at the University of Manchester, recently found that asparagus eaten in the UK has the highest carbon footprint compared to any other vegetable eaten in the country, with 5.3kg of carbon dioxide being produced for every kilogram of asparagus, mainly because much of it is imported by air from Peru. She and her colleagues found, in fact, that the succulent green stalks have the largest environmental footprint of any of the 56 vegetables they looked at, including its land use and water use (which was three times greater than the next highest).

More from The Vegan Season on BBC Good Food

Without carefully considering where our food comes from and how it is grown, our diets can have unintended consequences. Take the strange case of two vegans in an Italian study who were found to have an environmental impact considerably higher than many meat-eaters. When the researchers dug a little further, they discovered the pair exclusively ate fruit.

“They ate a huge quantity of fruits,” explains Francesca Scazzina, an expert on human nutrition at the University of Parma, Italy. “In fact, I remember [it was] 7-8kg (15.4 to17.6lb) per day of fruit. We collected their data in the summer so they especially ate watermelons and cantaloupes.”

The water, land and carbon footprint of growing and transporting such large, perishable fruit meant the environmental impact was far larger than they had expected. Once the data from all 153 vegans, vegetarians and omnivores in the study was taken into account, however, it showed that eating meat was on average worse for the environment.

Fruit may be healthy, but it can come with a high carbon cost (Credit: Getty Images)


Right now, you are probably sitting on a chair, using a mouse or a keyboard that is resting on a desk – all these things are solids. Something is usually described as a solid if it can hold its own shape and is hard to compress (squash). The particles in most solids are closely packed together. Even though the particles are locked into place and cannot move or slide past each other, they still vibrate a tiny bit.

Ice is water in its solid form or state. Ice keeps its shape when frozen, even if it is removed from its container. However, ice is different from most solids: its molecules are less densely packed than in liquid water. This is why ice floats.

Biofuel Basics

Unlike other renewable energy sources, biomass can be converted directly into liquid fuels, called "biofuels," to help meet transportation fuel needs. The two most common types of biofuels in use today are ethanol and biodiesel, both of which represent the first generation of biofuel technology.

NREL Post Doc Brenna Black draws samples from a tubular bag photobioreactor, to inoculate new growth media, at the Algal Research Lab at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, CO. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL

The Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is collaborating with industry to develop next-generation biofuels made from non-food (cellulosic and algae-based) resources. Over the past decade, BETO focused on cellulosic ethanol, investing in technology advances throughout the supply chain. These activities successfully validated critical technologies for cellulosic ethanol production. The Office’s past work on cellulosic ethanol provides a valuable springboard for advances in hydrocarbon biofuels—also known as “drop-in” fuels—which can serve as petroleum substitutes in existing refineries, tanks, pipelines, pumps, vehicles, and smaller engines.


Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) is a renewable fuel that can be made from various plant materials, collectively known as “biomass.” Ethanol is an alcohol used as a blending agent with gasoline to increase octane and cut down carbon monoxide and other smog-causing emissions.

The most common blend of ethanol is E10 (10% ethanol, 90% gasoline). Some vehicles, called flexible fuel vehicles, are designed to run on E85 (a gasoline-ethanol blend containing 51%–83% ethanol, depending on geography and season), an alternative fuel with much higher ethanol content than regular gasoline. Roughly 97% of gasoline in the United States contains some ethanol.

Most ethanol is made from plant starches and sugars, but scientists are continuing to develop technologies that would allow for the use of cellulose and hemicellulose, the non-edible fibrous material that constitutes the bulk of plant matter. In fact, several commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol biorefineries are currently operational in the United States.

The common method for converting biomass into ethanol is called fermentation. During fermentation, microorganisms (e.g., bacteria and yeast) metabolize plant sugars and produce ethanol.

Biodiesel is a liquid fuel produced from renewable sources, such as new and used vegetable oils and animal fats and is a cleaner-burning replacement for petroleum-based diesel fuel. Biodiesel is nontoxic and biodegradable and is produced by combining alcohol with vegetable oil, animal fat, or recycled cooking grease.

Like petroleum-derived diesel, biodiesel is used to fuel compression-ignition (diesel) engines. Biodiesel can be blended with petroleum diesel in any percentage, including B100 (pure biodiesel) and, the most common blend, B20 (a blend containing 20% biodiesel and 80% petroleum diesel).


Petroleum fuels, such as gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel, contain a complex mixture of hydrocarbons (molecules of hydrogen and carbon), which are burned to produce energy. Hydrocarbons can also be produced from biomass sources through a variety of biological and thermochemical processes. Biomass-based renewable hydrocarbon fuels are nearly identical to the petroleum-based fuels they are designed to replace—so they're compatible with today's engines, pumps, and other infrastructure.

Currently one commercial scale facility (World Energy in Paramount, California) is producing renewable diesel from waste fats, oils, and greases. Several companies are interested in either retrofitting existing brown-field sites or building green-field facilities for renewable diesel and jet in the US. Learn more about Renewable Hydrocarbon Fuels.



Producing advanced biofuels (e.g., cellulosic ethanol and renewable hydrocarbon fuels) typically involves a multistep process. First, the tough rigid structure of the plant cell wall—which includes the biological molecules cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin bound tightly together—must be broken down. This can be accomplished in one of two ways: high temperature deconstruction or low temperature deconstruction.

High-Temperature Deconstruction
High-temperature deconstruction makes use of extreme heat and pressure to break down solid biomass into liquid or gaseous intermediates. There are three primary routes used in this pathway:

During pyrolysis, biomass is heated rapidly at high temperatures (500°C–700°C) in an oxygen-free environment. The heat breaks down biomass into pyrolysis vapor, gas, and char. Once the char is removed, the vapors are cooled and condensed into a liquid “bio-crude” oil.

Gasification follows a slightly similar process however, biomass is exposed to a higher temperature range (>700°C) with some oxygen present to produce synthesis gas (or syngas)—a mixture that consists mostly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen.

When working with wet feedstocks like algae, hydrothermal liquefaction is the preferred thermal process. This process uses water under moderate temperatures (200°C–350°C) and elevated pressures to convert biomass into liquid bio-crude oil.

Low-Temperature Deconstruction
Low-temperature deconstruction typically makes use of biological catalysts called enzymes or chemicals to breakdown feedstocks into intermediates. First, biomass undergoes a pretreatment step that opens up the physical structure of plant and algae cell walls, making sugar polymers like cellulose and hemicellulose more accessible. These polymers are then broken down enzymatically or chemically into simple sugar building blocks during a process known as hydrolysis.


Following deconstruction, intermediates such as crude bio-oils, syngas, sugars, and other chemical building blocks must be upgraded to produce a finished product. This step can involve either biological or chemical processing.

Microorganisms, such as bacteria, yeast, and cyanobacteria, can ferment sugar or gaseous intermediates into fuel blendstocks and chemicals. Alternatively, sugars and other intermediate streams, such as bio-oil and syngas, may be processed using a catalyst to remove any unwanted or reactive compounds in order to improve storage and handling properties.

The finished products from upgrading may be fuels or bioproducts ready to sell into the commercial market or stabilized intermediates suitable for finishing in a petroleum refinery or chemical manufacturing plant.

Watch the video: Ξύδι από τον Γιάννη How to make vinegar (December 2021).