Information

A diagram of a crossover


How can one draw a crossover between ABK and aBk where genes A and B follow the Mendel's law of independent assortment and gene K does not i.e. K is linked to B?


I'm not sure if this is what you're asking for, but in the following image, allele K (or k) is linked to B while A (or a) and B are independent.

Again, this is just a guess because your question seems a bit unclear to me.


Crossover

Reduction of crossing over within an inversion loop in inversion heterozygotes due to physical constraints during synapsis. Crossing over within an inversion loop, when it does occur, leads to defective (deleted and duplicated) crossover chromosomes and mortality of zygotes carrying them.

Although crossovers typically occur between homologous regions of matching chromosomes, similarities in sequence can result in mismatched alignments. These processes are called unbalanced recombination.

Chromosomal crossover
Chromosomal crossover is the process by which two chromosomes, paired up during Prophase I of meiosis, exchange some distal portion of their DNA.

occurs when homologous chromosomes exchange genetic material. This occurs at the stage when chromatids of homologous chromosomes pair up during synapsis, forming X-structure (chiasma). The chromatids break into segments (of matching regions), which are then exchanged with one another.

product A chromosome homolog that was formed through the recombination of alleles at different loci present on opposite homologs in one of the parents of the animal in which it is observed (see Chapter 7).

.
cytoplasm. All the inner contents of a cell external to the nucleus and bounded by the cell membrane.
cytosine. See nucleotide base.

: The exchange of nucleotides between pairs of homologous chromosomes during mitosis or especially meiosis. (W. R. Elsberry in talk.origins)
D .

region
Metaphase plate
Chiasma
Kinetochore
5. One round of mitosis leads to an entirely new individual in which type of organism? .

: Animal migration continues across Maasai Mara
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event between the two genes would swap the information between the two chromatids.
Illustration of the recombination process, also referred to as crossing over
FbfB .

event between homologous non-sister chromatids leads to a reciprocal exchange of equivalent DNA between a maternal chromosome and a paternal chromosome.

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If you know of any terms that have been omitted from this glossary that you feel would be useful to include, please send details to the Editorial Office at GenScript.

, each individual solution is on its own, exploring the search space in its immediate vicinity without reference to what other individuals may have discovered.

and mutation
A selection strategy based on roulette wheel and uniform sampling was applied, while an elite count value of 10 (number of chromosomes which are retained for the next generation) was selected.

s -- the exchange of genetic material between two paired chromosome during meiosis. Cornelia de Lange syndrome -- condition involving growth deficiency, significant developmental delay, anomalies of the extremities and a characteristic facial appearance. Cytogenetics -- the study of chromosomes.

connection links secondary structures at the opposite ends of the structural core and goes across the surface of the domain. (SCOP)
Crossing over .

Complete linkage describes the inheritance patterns for 2 genes on the same chromosome when the observed frequency for

between the loci is zero. dioecious Organisms produce only one type of gamete i.e. humans dominant trait. A trait expressed preferentially over another trait.

The pachytene stage, also known as pachynema, from Greek words meaning "thick threads", :27 is the stage when chromosomal

(crossing over) occurs. Nonsister chromatids of homologous chromosomes randomly exchange segments over regions of homology.

(Genetics) Thought to be the point where two homologous non-sister chromatids exchange genetic material during chromosomal

during meiosis (sister chromatids also form chiasmata between each other, but because their genetic material is identical, it does not cause any change in the resulting daughter cells).

, break and rejoin. At least one crossing over event per chromosome arm is obligatory for successful meiosis. Thus the resulting chromatids (soon to be chromosomes) contain genes from both the parents (of the individual who is making the gamete).

They get inherited together because they're not generally

s or recombinations between these markers or between these different polymorphisms because they are very, very close. So a haplotype can refer to a combination of alleles in a single gene, or it could be alleles across multiple genes.

negative interference In genetics: a phenomenon where the occurrence of one

event occurring in the same vicinity. Compare: positive interference.
Online Biology Dictionary (NEMATO-) .

Genetic linkage reflects a lack of meiotic

s between two genes one of which is usually a latent/unknown disease locus.

Some genes on a chromosome are so far apart that a

between them is virtually certain.
In this case, the frequency of recombination reaches its maximum value of 50% and the genes behave as if found on separate chromosomes.

Unequal cross-over
A recombination event that occurs between DNA molecules that are not fully aligned. For example, a

may occur between repeated DNA sequences resulting in the deletion or duplication the intervening DNA sequence.
Umber
The codon UGA. An less commonly used term for an opal codon.

genetic maps Diagrams showing the order of and distance between genes constructed using

information.
genetics The study of the structure and function of genes and the transmission of genes from parents to offspring.

ABSTRACT: The objective of this lab was to study and test the sordaria fimicola fungus

by determining what color it will yield during meiosis a.
Pest Control Methods in Rice Production .

Balanced lethal: Lethal mutations in different genes on the same pair of chromosomes that remain in repulsion because of close linkage or

suppression. In a closed population, only the trans-heterozygotes (l1 + / + l2) for the lethal mutations survive.


Why more speakers are better than one

If you are new to the field of hi-fi speaker design, you might be wondering, why we can&apost just use one speaker? After all, you will probably find devices around your home that only have a single speaker, such as a small portable radio or your mobile phone. But do they sound great at all frequencies?

A common complaint of single-speaker designs is the lack of bass response. That means low volume and sound distortions at low frequencies, such as the bass instrument in a music track. To fix this issue, you could make the speaker bigger, but then high frequencies would be low in volume. For a hi-fi speaker design, we are looking for the same sound volume output across as wide a range of frequencies as possible.

The solution is to have two or three (maybe more, but these are less common) specialist speakers inside each speaker unit. A speaker that outputs high frequencies is called a tweeter, and one that produces low frequencies is called a woofer.

For a three-speaker setup, you would also have a midrange speaker to cover a range of frequencies between higher quality tweeter and woofer speakers.

However, there is a problem when it comes to connecting our multiple speaker solution to an amplifier. The speaker cable contains all frequencies (as electronic signals), so the woofer will still get the high frequencies, and the tweeter the low frequencies. This frequency mismatch will produce sound distortion, and could even damage a speaker if it gets a loud enough signal at the wrong frequency.


What Are the Types of Crossovers?

Crossovers are divided into passive (speaker) and active (electronic) crossovers. With passive crossovers, you don’t need power to block sounds.

Active crossovers, on the other hand, require power, as well as ground connections, but they ensure you have better flexibility when it comes to controlling the finer details of your sound output. Below is a closer look at both of them.

1. Active Crossovers

With an active crossover, each sound driver gets its own channel amplification. By giving the subwoofer, woofer, and tweeter, their own channels, the available power, and dynamic range—from softest to loudest—is greatly increased. This gives you better control of the whole audio spectrum as well as your system’s tonal response.

An active crossover is typically wired between the receiver and amplifier, cutting out any unnecessary frequencies and ensuring that the amp doesn’t waste energy on boosting them. This ensures that the amp can focus solely on delivering the frequencies you’d like to hear from a specific speaker.

Active crossovers also come with volume controls on the channels, allowing you to maintain the sound balance from all the drivers. Some designs of active crossovers come with other sound-processing features like equalization, allowing you to further tweak the sound generated until you are satisfied.

The downside to active crossovers, however, is that they require +12V, ground, and turn on connections to run. This makes them more challenging to install and set up.

If you can spare a little time, however, you should be able to deal with this challenge. The advantages far outweigh the setup difficulty, which is why most people that take their music seriously go for systems that have active crossovers. It is the perfect way to keep your speakers belting out crisp and clear sounds of all frequencies.

2. Passive Crossovers

Passive crossovers don’t need a connection to a power source to work. There are two variants of these types of crossovers: in-line crossovers and component crossovers. The latter sits in the middle of the amplifier and the speakers while the former fits between the amp and the receiver.

3. Passive Component Crossovers

These crossovers fit into the signal path beyond the amplifier. They feature a small network of capacitors and coils and are installed near the speakers. Speaker systems with component crossovers are designed to deliver the best performance possible out of the box with little or no external tweaks. They are also simple to install and set up.

With a passive component crossover, a full-range signal first leaves the amplifier, and then it gets to the crossover, where the signal is separated into two parts.

The high notes are sent to the tweeter, while the mid and low notes go to the woofer. In most passive component crossover systems, you can reduce the tweeter sound a bit when you think it is too loud for the woofer.

A passive component crossover will waste power because it is filtering a signal that has been amplified already. The unwanted sounds are released as heat.

Additionally, you need to consider the fact that speakers don’t maintain fixed impedance as they play sounds. This can change the crossover point or frequency response of a passive component crossover. This can cause some inconsistencies with the sound definition.

4. In-Line Crossovers

While component crossovers operate on speaker-level signals mostly, in-line crossovers connect before the amplifier. These crossovers have a cylindrical appearance, with RCA connectors at both ends. They plug directly into your amplifier’s inputs.

In-line crossovers solve the problem of energy wastage where the amplifier processes signal you won’t need. This means you don’t have to worry about scenarios like high frequencies being processed by a subwoofer amp.

By installing an in-line crossover system, you can improve the sounds of your system a great deal, especially if you have a component speaker system.

You should know, however, that in-line crossovers generally come set to a specific frequency and can’t be adjusted. Additionally, in-line crossovers interact differently with different amplifiers. This means that the crossover points can be unpredictably affected.


Mythical creature crossover diagram

Sorry to be that asshole but vampires are not associated with bats in mythology. That is a recent invention traced to the book Dracula. Vampires are traditionally associated with wolves, and in some areas vampires and werewolves are the same thing.

You’re absolutely right in the same vein that many of these are depicted as their modern, often slightly westernized ideas of what they are (dragons being Bat Lizards, for example, when in many cultures they don’t even have wings). Also, for Vampires specifically, Dracula (the book) goes into not only the whole bat aspect, but also controlling (and becoming? It’s kinda half implied?) wolves and the whole schtick. In fact, Dracula is more often seen as ‘lizard-like’ and crawling vertically on flat walls, so it’s totally weird that pop culture has decided to go “So yeah they’re bats now”. Really interesting how our general perception of different mythical things shifts from place to place/time to time

So, does the term Vampire Bat predate Stroker's Dracula or is it a latter term, that has been derived from the association made through that book and its later adaptations?

hey that's interesting but then why did Stoker fix on bats? I suppose we can't tell how his mind worked.

The placement of basilisk bothers me, because the mythological version is explicitly a snake, not a lizard.

Something I've noticed is just how fundamentally different pre-modern concepts of zoology were. We distinguish lizards and snakes as two very different kinds of animals (even though snakes are biologically lizards) in a way ancient people didn't necessarily do. We recognize a much more rigid classification of animals in our world than I think ancient people ever did, so we get preoccupied with how many limbs a dragon has and if it's really a wyvern or a wyrm, when the people who developed the concepts originally never would have thought much about numbers of limbs or characteristics like that meaning all that much.

Dragon, wyvern, serpent, worm, vermin, viper, and python all basically mean the same thing if you examine their etymology.

So basically it's all fun and games and these discussions are valuable, but don't run away with the idea that these rules are rigid like modern biology.


Consequence #1: Abnormal pairing at Meiosis

Homologous regions of chromosomes pair at meiosis I (prophase I). With rearranged chromosomes this can lead to visible abnormalities and segregation abnormalities.

Deletion chromosomes will pair up with a normal homolog along the shared regions and at the missing segment, the normal homolog will loop out (nothing to pair with) to form a deletion loop. This can be used to locate the deletion cytologically. The deleted region is also pseudo-dominant, in that it permits the mutant expression of recessive alleles on the normal homolog. Deletion mutations don&rsquot revert - nothing to replace the missing DNA.

When an inversion chromosome is paired up in meiosis there is an inversion loop formed. If there is a crossover within the loop then abnormal products will result and abnormal, unbalanced gametes will be produced. For example, a crossover event within the loop of a paracentric inversion will lead to a di-centric product that will break into deletion products and produce unbalanced gametes. Similarly, with a pericentric inversion, a crossover event leads to duplicate/deletion products that are unbalanced.

Figure (PageIndex<4>): A paracentric inversion pairing at meiosis. A crossover within the loop causes the production of an acentric and a dicentric chromatids which leads to deletion product.(Original-Locke-CC:AN) Figure (PageIndex<5>): A pericentric inversion pairing at meiosis. A crossover within the loop causes the production of duplicate and deletion products. (Original-Locke-CC:AN)


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XI. Crossover and Mutation

Crossover and mutation are two basic operators of GA. Performance of GA very depends on them. Type and implementation of operators depends on encoding and also on a problem.

There are many ways how to do crossover and mutation. In this chapter are only some examples and suggestions how to do it for several encoding.

Binary Encoding

Single point crossover - one crossover point is selected, binary string from beginning of chromosome to the crossover point is copied from one parent, the rest is copied from the second parent

11001011+11011111 = 11001111

Two point crossover - two crossover point are selected, binary string from beginning of chromosome to the first crossover point is copied from one parent, the part from the first to the second crossover point is copied from the second parent and the rest is copied from the first parent

11001011 + 11011111 = 11011111

Uniform crossover - bits are randomly copied from the first or from the second parent

11001011 + 11011101 = 11011111

Arithmetic crossover - some arithmetic operation is performed to make a new offspring

11001011 + 11011111 = 11001001 (AND)

Bit inversion - selected bits are inverted

11001001 => 10001001

Permutation Encoding

Single point crossover - one crossover point is selected, till this point the permutation is copied from the first parent, then the second parent is scanned and if the number is not yet in the offspring it is added
Note: there are more ways how to produce the rest after crossover point

(1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9) + (4 5 3 6 8 9 7 2 1) = (1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 7)

(1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 7) => (1 8 3 4 5 6 2 9 7)


Value Encoding

(1.29 5.68 2.86 4.11 5.55) => (1.29 5.68 2.73 4.22 5.55)


Crossing Over of Genes (With Diagram) | Genetics

The genes remain in linear order along the length of the chromosome and linkage is the physical relationship between the genes. During meiosis a physical crossover between gene pairs (Hi homologous chromo­somes occur.

According to Jonssen’s cross­over Theory (1909) a cytologically observed chiasma is the exchange point between the homologous chromosomes. Crossing over means breaks of linkage within the chromo­some and physical exchange of gene from one chromosome to the corresponding po­sition of the homologous one.

The crossing over may be in one, two, three or more points and are said to be single, double, triple or multiple crossing over and the gametes are called crossovers.

The experiment (Fig. 46.5) to show the example of linkage in a single crossover. The percentage of crossover varies between dif­ferent genes but remains constant for each pair. The crossover percentage is dependent on the relative distance of the two pairs of alleles on the chromosome. Greater the dis­tance, higher will be the amount of crossing over percentage.

It is found that crossing over in one region apparently inhibits or interferes with crossing over in a neighbouring region. Muller termed this as ‘interference’. There are only few or double crossovers within a 10 unit or less long section of chromosome due to interference. When the distance be­tween two genes increases, the interference becomes less or even nil.

The double crossover is the coincidence or coming together of two single crossovers and involves three genes on the same chro­mosome. When double crossovers occur in expected numbers, the coincidence is con­sidered as 100 per cent and interference is 0.

Alternatively, when there is no double crossover, the interference is 100% and co­incidence is 0. The ratio of observed fre­quency to the expected frequency of double crossovers is known as “coincidence coef­ficient”.

Double Crossover in Drosophila:

In Drosophila, yellow body (y), miniature wing (m) and forked bristles (f) are three recessive mutations in the X-chromosome. The normal fly possesses grey body (y + ), long wings (m + ) and straight bristles (f + ). A cross between yellow-miniature-forked female and a normal male produces in f1 female with genotype During ovulation in the female, the chromosome might pair in four possible ways, resulting eight classes of combination (Fig. 46.5). The first and 2nd classes of combination are the crosser over, the third and forth classed are single crossovers between y and m, the 5th and the 6th classes are single crossover between m and f and 7th and 8th classes are double crossovers between y and f. if these are test crossed with triple recessive male (y m f), then all these eight classes of offspring will be produced.

Calculation of distance and order between y m f:

The distances between y m f can be calculated now by knowing the percentage of crossover. Ignoring the forked locus, the crossovers between y and m result in the combinations y + m and y m + . These com­binations are found in Fig. 46.6 as classes 3 and 4 (the single crossovers in between y m) and classes 7 and 8 (the double crossover between y f).

Percentage of single crossover between y and m is 30 and percentage of double crossover between y and m is 6. So, the total crossover between y and m is 30 + 6 = 36%. Similarly, the single crossover percentage between m and f is 14% and the double crossover is 6%. So, the total cross­over percentage between m and f is 14 + 6 = 20.

Therefore, the distance between y and m is 36 and distance between m and f is 20.

We know the genes are in the order of y m f and the distance between y and f is 36 + 20 = 56 (Fig. 46.6). The double cross­overs are counted twice, because a double crossover is equivalent to two single cross­overs, one between y and m and another between m and f.

With the test cross the actual percentage of crossovers between y and m and f will give the real order of y m f.


In telophase, the separated chromosomes arrive at opposite poles. The remainder of the typical telophase events may or may not occur, depending on the species. In some organisms, the chromosomes decondense and nuclear envelopes form around the chromatids in telophase I. In other organisms, cytokinesis—the physical separation of the cytoplasmic components into two daughter cells—occurs without reformation of the nuclei. In nearly all species of animals and some fungi, cytokinesis separates the cell contents via a cleavage furrow (constriction of the actin ring that leads to cytoplasmic division). In plants, a cell plate is formed during cell cytokinesis by Golgi vesicles fusing at the metaphase plate. This cell plate will ultimately lead to the formation of cell walls that separate the two daughter cells.

Two haploid cells are the end result of the first meiotic division. The cells are haploid because at each pole, there is just one of each pair of the homologous chromosomes. Therefore, only one full set of the chromosomes is present. This is why the cells are considered haploid—there is only one chromosome set, even though each homolog still consists of two sister chromatids. Recall that sister chromatids are merely duplicates of one of the two homologous chromosomes (except for changes that occurred during crossing over). In meiosis II, these two sister chromatids will separate, creating four haploid daughter cells.

Link to Learning

Review the process of meiosis, observing how chromosomes align and migrate, at Meiosis: An Interactive Animation.