19.1.15: Monotremes - Biology

19.1.15: Monotremes - Biology

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Monotremes are a small but remarkable group of mammals that consists of a single species of duckbill platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) found in Australia and three (perhaps four) species of spiny anteaters (echidnas) found in Australia and New Guinea.

These animals retain several traits of their therapsid ancestors including

  • a cloaca - the final segment of the digestive tract into which both the urinary and reproductive tracts empty (monotreme = single hole);
  • lay shelled eggs that undergo merobastic cleavage like that of reptiles (and birds) rather than the holoblastic cleavage of all other mammals.

Despite these reptilian features, the monotremes meet all the criteria of true mammals:

  • milk secreted from mammary glands (but no nipples)
  • hair
  • teeth (only in the young; they are lost in adult montremes)

In the May 8 issue of Nature, a consortium of gene sequencers reported the results of sequencing the complete genome of the platypus. They identified 18,527 protein-coding genes distributed on 52 chromosomes.

The mix of mammalian and reptilian phenotypic features turns out to be reflected in the genome as well. Examples:

  • The platypus has genes for egg yolk proteins that are also found in birds but not in therians.
  • The gene content of their X chromosomes resembles that of the Z chromosome in birds, not the X chromosome of other mammals like us.

Other features of their genome reflect their unique biology:

  • The platypus produces a venom with genes which in other mammals encode for antimicrobial peptides called defensins.
  • The platypus has some 1000 genes for receptors in its vomeronasal organ — far more than found in other mammals. The platypus hunts for food underwater and probably uses these receptors to detect prey (as well as using its electroreceptors for this purpose).

Processing of sensory information

The processing of information is well documented and well explained at the peripheral level with separate receptors sending detailed information of one or two facets of a sensory stimulation to the central nervous system. This detailed information appers to be conveyed along separate channels which are maintained, with regard to receptor specificity along the course of the dorsal column lemniscothalamic-somatosensory cortical pathway which emerges as a system with a high degree of spatial resolution but which, because of its basically phasic nature, demands that the distal limb sensory surface is moved in relation to the object under sensory scrutiny. Indeed this pathway appears to develop in relation to those specialized parts of the body surface used as a mobile exploratory tool. The position of the spinocervical-lemniscothalamic path is less clear. This system, in the cat, appears to be highly specialized for the rapid transfer of sensory information from the hairy skin of the hindleg to the cerebral mantle in the monkey, this path shows less specialization and in man may or may not be present. Its use, in the behavioural sense, has not received the attention it warrants. The function of the spinothalamic system with its tactile, noxious and mixed components cannot be easily placed into a simple functional role.

The question of why the cerebral mantle receives two projections one relatively fast to SI, the other slower to SII may be a functional expression of a delay line useful as a comparator to enable the nervous system (a) to work out sequential changes in input discharge pattern to perform texture analysis and (b) to perform some sort of auto- or cross-correlation analysis to solve the problem of the temporal sequence of integumental stimulation.

The pathways to the cortex are under both tonic and phasic gain control either by inhibition (reduced gain) or excitation (increased gain) which, naïvely would seem to serve as a means to obtain a central strongly activated core of cells with a sharp cut off at the edge of the core. Both cortical and “reticular” systems are implicated in this sort of control with the latter system playing a much more subtle role than turning on or off excitation. Much remains to be discovered about this form of control.

Lastly, this review has, unless forced to go elsewhere for an illustrative example, been concerned solely with the transfer of information from the face and for the visual and auditory systems.


Experimental Background to the Study of the Distribution and Abundance of Insects. III, The relation between innate capacity for increase and survival of different species of beetles living together on the same food. L. C. BIRCH 136

On the Origin and Composition of the Nearctic Insect Fauna. HERBERT H. ROSS 145

Evolution of the Mammalian Ear. D. M. S. WATSON 159

The Chronofauna and Quantum Evolution. JAMES R. BEERBOWER 178

Comment on "How Many Species." GEORGE C. STEYSKAL 179

Cave Fish Evolution. CHARLES M. BREDER 179

Review of "Principles of Organic Evolution." GLENN JEPSEN . 181

Review of "Invertebrate Fossils" and "Principles of Invertebrate Paleontology." NORMAN D. NEWELL 183

Vol. VII December 1953 No. 4

Selective Mating as a Cause of Gene Frequency Changes in Laboratory Populations of Drosophila melanogaster. DAVID J. MERRELL 287

Comparative Growth between and within Climatic Races of Achillea under Controlled Conditions. WILLIAM M. HIESEY 297

Biosystematic Studies in Aster, II: Isolating Mechanisms and Some Phylogenetic Considerations. CHARLOTTE J. AVERS 317

Egg Size in Arctic, Antarctic and Deep-Sea Fishes. N. B. MARSHALL 328

On the Role of Inversion in Wild Populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura. CARL EPLING, DONALD F. MITCHELL, and R. H. T. MATTONI 342

The Interaction of Nucleus and Cytoplasm in the Isolation and Evolution of Species of Paramecium. MYRON LEVINE 366

The "Baldwin Effect," "Genetic Assimilation" and "Homeostasis." C. H. WADDINGTON 386

Comment on the Origin of Sex and of Meiosis. EDWARD 0. DODSON 387

The Sex Chromosome of the Honey Bee. F. J. MANNING 388

The Evolution of Mating Behavior Patterns. N. TINBERGEN . 391

Comment on "Cave Fish Evolution." M. J. HEUTS 391

Vol. VIII September 1954 No. 3

Phylogenetic Aspects of Respiratory Function. F. H. McCUTCHEON 181

Further Serological Data on the Relationships of Some Decapod Crustacea. CHARLES A. LEONE 192

A Partial Breakdown of Temporal and Ecological Isolation between Choristoneura Spedes (Lepidoptera, Torticidae). STANLEY G. SMITH 206

Experimental Studies on the Distribution of Gene Frequencies in Very Small Populations of Drosophila melanogaster. SEWALL WRIGHT and WARWICK E. KERR 225

Integration of the Genotype in Local Populations of Three Species of Drosophila. M. VETUKHIV 241

Hybridization in the Red-Eyed Towhees of Mexico. CHARLES G. SIBLEY 252

Population Size and Effectiveness of Selection. EVERRET R. DEMPSTER and MICHAEL LERNER 291

Comment on Note by Dempster and Lerner on Population Size and Effectiveness of Selection. BJORN KURTEN 292

Vol. IX March 1955 No. I

Adaptive Gene Substitution in Tasmanian Eucalypts. HORACE NEWTON BARBER 1

Evolution of Climatic Adaptation in Homeotherms. P. F. SCHOLANDER . 15

The Effects of Population Density and Composition on Viability in Drosophila melanogaster. RICHARD LEWONTIN 27

Ecology and Hybridization in the Genus Bufo in the Michigan-Indiana Region. BROTHER LAWRENCE CORY and JAMES J. MANION 42

Polymorphism as an Outcome of Disruptive Selection. K. MATHER 52

Studies in Linkage in Populations. I. Associations of Second Chromosome Linkages in Drosophila robusta. MAX LEVITAN 62

The Role of Ontogeny in Systematics and Evolution. GRACE L. ORTON .. 75

Evolution in the Notostraca. ALAN R. LONGHURST 84

The Problem of Extinction with Special References to Australian Marsupials. EDMUND D. GILL 87

The Effect of a Yeast upon the Incorporation of Phosphorus into the Tissue of Adult Fruit Flies. ROBERT C. KING 93

The Genesis of Man. LEONARD D. SILLMAN 94

Genetic Homeostasis. THEODOSIUS DOBZHANSKY 100

Animal Cytology and Evolution. THEODOSIUS DOBZHANSKY 101


Philippine Amphibia. RALPH G. JOHNSON 104

Corrigenda: Experimental Studies of Distribution of Gene Frequencies in Very Small Populations of Drosophila melanogaster: I. Forkeal (by Warwick E. Kerr and Sewall Wright, Evolution 8, p. 176) 105

Vol. X March 1956 No. 1

Genetic Assimilation of the Bithorax Phenotype. C. H. WADDINGTON 1

Selection for Sexual Isolation within a Species. G. R. KNIGHT, ALAN ROBERTSON, and C. H. WADDINGTON 14

Pollen Dimorphism in the Rubiaceae. H. G. BAKER 23

Population Variability, Hybridization, and Introgression in Some Species of Ophrys. G. LEDYARD STEBBINS and L. FERLAN 32

Serological Light on Porcupine Relationships. PAUL A. MOODY and DAVID E. DONIGER 47

The Origin and Evolution of the Venomous Snakes. RALPH G. JOHNSON 56

A Further Report on the Genetics of the Machaon Group of Swallowtail Butterflies. C. A. CLARKE and P. M. SHEPPARD 66

Evolution of Some Endocarpal Features in the Tribe Tinosporeae (Memispermaceae). RICHARD A. SCOTT 74

Genetics of Natural Populations. XXV. Genetic Changes in Populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura and Drosophila perisimilis in Some Localities in California. TH. DOBSHZANSKY 82

Semilethal Complementary Factors in a Tomato Species Hybrid ANAND C. SAWANT 93

Catastrophism and the Fossil Record. NORMAN D. NEWELL . 97

Adaptation of Man to Cold Climates. MARSHALL T. NEWMAN 101

Geographical Character Gradients and Climatic Adaptation. ERNST MAYR 105

Evidence of Vascular Plants in the Cambrian. S. LECLERCQ 109

The Genetics and Evolution of Gynodioecy. D. LEWIS and LESLIE K. CROWE 115

The Origin of Clarkia lingulata. HARLAN LEWIS and MARGARET R. ROBERTS 126

Fecundity of Hybrids Between Geographic Populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura. M. VETUKHIV 139

An Analysis of Variation in a Variable Population of Cladonia. EDGAR ANDERSON and E. D. RUDOLPH 147

The Geographic History of Quercus ajoensis. JOHN M. TUCKER and CORNELIUS H. MULLER 157

Comparison of the Block Island "species" of Microtus with M. pennsylvanicus. BERNICE WHEELER 176

Evolution of the Loop and Lophophore in Terebratuloid Brachiopods. FRANCIS G. STEHLI 187

Evolution in the Subholostean Fishes. BOBB SCHAEFFER 201

Reproductive Organ Polymorphism in Earthworms of the Oriental Megascolecine Genus Pheretima Kinberg 1867. G. E. GATES . 213

Schistic Evolution. HOBART M. SMITH 228

Vol. X September 1956 No. 3

Differential Viability Favoring Inversion Heterozygotes in Drosophila willistoni. A. BRITO DA CUNHA 231

Taxonomy and the Evolution of Genera, with Special Reference to the Family Gramineae. G. LEDYARD STEBBINS 235

Introgression in Planktonic Rotatoria with Some Points of View on Its Causes and Conceivable Results. BIRGER PEJLER 246

Ecologic Factors That Accelerate Formation of Races and Species of Terrestrial Vertebrates. ALDEN H. MILLER 262

A Model of a Genetic System Which Leads to Closer Linkage by Natural Selection. MOTOO KIMURA 278

Chromosomal Polymorphism and Sexual Isolation in Sibling Species of the Bocainensis Subgroup of Drosophila. FRANCISCO M. SALZANO 288

Adaptive Chromosomal Polymorphism in an Australian Grasshopper. M. J. D. WHITE 298

A Biometric Study of the Evolution of Fissipede Carnivores. M. CRUSAFONT-PAIRO and J. TRUYOLS-SANTONJA 314

Symposium on Evolution Held in Spain. G. G. SIMPSON 333

The Palaeobotanist. SUZANNE LE CLERCQ 334

Genetic Assimilation: Adaptation Versus Adaptability. FREDERICK E. WARBURTON 337

Climatic Rules. P. F. SCHOLANDER 339

H. G. Baker. Dimerphism in the Rubiacea. EVOLUTION, Vol. X, No. 1, fig. 2 (1956) 340

Vol. X December 1956 No. 4

Interfertility Between Two Sympatric Fishes, Notropis lutrensis and Notropis venustus. CLARK HUBBS and KIRK STRAWN 341

On the Evolution of Parthenogenesis in Lonchoptera (Diptera). HARRISON D. STALKER 345

Re-examination of the Diversity in Partula taeniata. DONALD W. BAILEY 360

Gene Frequency in Small Populations of Mutant Drosophila. PETER BURI 367

A Genetic Approach to the Systematics of Planorbid Molluscs. W. LABATO PARAENSE 403

Additional Observations on Chromosomal Translocations in Cotton hybrids. D. U. GERSTEL and PATRICIA A. SARVELLA 408

Interspecific Hybrids in New Zealand Argopyron. H. E. CONNOR 415

A Gene Mutatation Which Changes a Behavior Pattern. MARGARET BASTOCK 421

Further Comments on the Origin of the Tetrapods. COLEMAN J. GOIN and OLIVE B. GOIN 440

Vol. XI March 1957 No. 1

Relative Variability of Hybrids between the Darters, Etheostoma spectabile and Percina caprodes. CLARK HUBBS and KIRK STRAWN 1

Recent Migration and Evolution of the Dioecious Amaranths. JONATHAN SAUER 11

Natural Selection of Individually Harmful Social Adaptations Among Sibs, with Special Reference to Social Insects. GEORGE C. WILLIAMS and DORIS C. WILLIAMS 32

Radiation and the Origin of the Gene. CARL SAGAN 40

Origin of Life on Earth, Its Evolution and Actualism. M. G. RUTTEN 56

New Mutations Affecting Tryptophan-Derived Eye Pigments in Three Species of Insects. CALVIN L. WARD and CARL S. HAMMEN 60

Skeletal Adaptations in Two Species of Sceloporus. ERNEST L. LUNDELIUS JR 65

Relation between Frequency and Adaptive Value of Chromosomal Arrangements in Drosophila persimilis. ELIOT B. SPIESS 84

Selection in Drosophila willistoni in Relation to Food. L. C. BIRCH and BRUNO BATTAGLIA 94

Regularities of Transformation in the Flower. G. LEDYARD STEBBlNS 106

Reply to Professor Stebbins' review of: E. Nelson, "Gesetzmssigkeiten der Gestaltwandlung im Bliitenbereich, ihre Be-

deutung fur das Problem der Evolution." ERICH NELSON .. 108

Report on the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Evolution. HARLAN LEWIS 110

Vol. XI June 1957 No. 2

Principles of Natural Coexistence Indicated by Leafhopper Populations. HERBERT ROSS 113

A Quantitative Approach to a Problem in Classification. CHARLES D. MICHENER and ROBERT S. SOKAL 130

Sex Chromosomes in Amniota. R. MATTHEY and J. M. VAN BRINK 163

Phase and Moulting Polymorphism in Locusts. F. 0. ALBRECHT and R. E. BLACKITH 166

Evolutionary Trends in Crustacea (Malacostraca). M. F. GLAESSNER 178

Variation in Fertility of Hybrids between Isolated Populations of the Serpentine Species, Streptanthus glandulosus cook. ARTHUR R. KRUCKEBERG 185

Adaptive Evolution in the Avian Wing. D. B. 0. SAVILE 212

The Relation of an Inversion System to Recombination in Wild Populations. CARL EPLING, DONALD MITCHELL, and R. H. T. MATTONI 225

Changes in an Inversion System During a Hundred Generations. CARL EPLING and WM. R. LOWER 248

The Usefulness of Scholander's Views on Adaptive Insulation of Animals. LAURENCE IRVING 257

An Experimental Investigation of judgements Concerning Genera and Species. EDGAR ANDERSON 260

Vol. XI September 1957 No. 3

Intraspecific Sympatry in the Lungless Salamander Ensatina eschscholtzi. ROBERT C. STEBBINS 265

Rate of Development of Viability Mutants in Drosophila melanogaster. GERT BONNIER and ULLA B. JONSSON 271

Genetics of Natural Populations XXVI: Chromosomal Variability in Island and Continental Populations of Drosophila willistoni from Central America and the West Indies. THEODOSIUS DOBZHANSKY 280

Ecological Niche Differentiation in the Boring Sponges (Clionidae). WILLARD D. HARTMAN 294

Numbers of Species of Ants in Faunae of Different Latitudes. M. KUSNEZOV 298

The Mesophragmatica Group of Species of Drosophila. DANKO BRNCIC and SUSI KOREFF SANTIBANEZ 300

An Experimental Study of Interaction between Genetic Drift and Natural Selection. THEODOSIUS DOBZHANSKY and OLGA PAVLOSKY 311

Factors Affecting Interbreeding in Sympatric Species of Spadefoots (Scaphiopus). A. 0. WASSERMAN 320

Adaptation in Hole-Nesting Birds. LARS VON HAARTMANN 339

Longevity of Hybrids between Geographic Populations of Drosophila pseudobscura. M. VETUKIV 348

Distribution and Specificity of Helmiths in Microtine Rodents: Evolutionary Implications. ROBERT RAUSCH 361

Cy L Versus Cy L-Pm Technique in Drosophila melanogaster. GERT BONNIER 369

Progestational Agents in Reptiles: A Possible Case of Physiological Preadaptation. RICHARD A. EDGREN and DAVID CALHOUN 372

Ecological Aspects of the Origins of the Tetrapods. ROBERT F. INGER 373

The Evolution of the Scrotum. R. RUIBAL 376

What is a Paleontological Species? MATTHEW H. NITECKI 378

Vol. XI December 1957 No. 4

The Evolution of Cultivated Cacao. R. CIFERRI and F. CIFERRI . 381

Pleiotropy, Natural Selection, and the Evolution of Senescence. GEORGE C. WILLIAMS 398

A Case of Darwinian Selection in Bears. BJORN KURTEN 412

What, If Anything, is a Rabbit? ALBERT E. WOOD 417

Fertility and Viability in Intergeneric Pheasant Hybrids. GUNNAR CONRAD SANDNES 426

Comments on the West Indian Honeycreeper or Bananaquit from Grenada and its Near Relative on St. Vincent. S. DILLON RIPLEY 445

The Pollination of Parkia by Bats and Its Attendant Evolutionary Problems. H. G. BAKER and B. J. HARRIS 449

Genetic Studies of a Laboratory Population of Paramecium aurelia, Variety 1. R. F. KimBALL, NENITA GAITHER and STELLA WILSON 461

Evolutionary Relationship Between Entomophilous Plants and Anthophilous Insects. E. E. LEPPIK 466

Fertile Hybrids Derived from a Wide Species Cross in Aster. CHARLOTTE J. AVERS 482

Vol. XII March 1958 No. 1

A Reevaluation of the Derivation of Quercus margaretta from Quercus gambelii. JOHN M. TUCKER and CORNELIUS H. MULLER 1

Dependence of the Adaptive Values of Certain Genotypes in Drosophila pseudoobscura on the Composition of the Gene Pool. HOWARD LEVENE, OLGA PAVLOVSKY and THEODOSIUS DOBZHANSKY 18

The Beginnings of Nomadic and Group-predatory Behavior in the Ponerine Ants. E. 0. WILSON 24

Experimental Studies of Mimicry in Some North American Butterflies. Part I. The Monarch, Danaus plexippus, and Viceroy, Limenitis archippus archippus. JANE VAN ZANDT BROWER 32

The Niger, the Volta, and the Dahomey Gap as Geographic Barriers. A. H. BOOTH 48

Evolution and Variation in Trillium. 11. Variation in Some External Characters Observed in Natural Populations of Trillium kamtschaticum Pall. KAZUKO SAMEJIMA 63

Sexual Isolation and Variation in Mating Behavior within Drosophila athabasca. DWIGHT D. MILLER 72

Hybridization in Some Species of Pteris L. TREVOR G. WALKER 82

Studies on Competition in Plant and Animals. IX. Experimental Studies on Migration in Drosophila melanogaster. KAN-ICHI SAKAI, TAKASHI NARISE, YUICHIRO HIRAIZUMI and SHIN-YA IYAMA 93

Studies on Blood Groups in the American Bison (buffalo). D. OWEN, C. STORMONT and M. R. IRWIN 102

The Concept of Ecologic Niche, with Reference to the Theory of Natural Coexistence. JAY M. SAVAGE 111

Further Comments on Niches and Natural Coexistence. HERBERT H. ROSS 112

The Comparison of Observed and Calculated Zygotic Distributions. BRUCE WALLACE 113

Haplodiploidy in the Diaspididae-Confirmation of an Evolutionary Hypothesis. SPENCER W. BROWN 115

The Caudal Fin as a Hydrofoil. J. R. NURSALL 116

Report on the Twelfth Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Evolution. HARLAN LEWIS 120

Vol. XII June 1958 No. 2

Experimental Studies of Mimicry in Some North American Butterflies. Part II. Battus Philenor and Papilio troilus, P. polyxenes, and P. glaucus. JANE VAN ZANDT BROWER 123

Cytotaxonomic Studies on the Fern Genus Pellaea. ALICE F. TRYON and DONALD M. BRITTON 137

A Differentiation Index, and a New Measure of Evolutionary Rates. BJORN KURTEN 146

A Mathematical Model for the Co-evolution of Obligate Parasites and Their Hosts. CHARLES J. MODE 158

Geographic Isolation and Phenotypic Constitution of Populations of Lepidobatrachus asper, a Neotropical Batrachian Inhabitant of Arid Regions. J. M. CEI 166

Chromosome Numbers and Evolution of the Genus Colchicum. NAOMI FEINBRUN 173

On Population Structure in Generalized Hunting and Collecting Populations. JOSEPH B. BIRDSELL 189

Problems of Cultural Evolution. JULIAN H. STEWARD 206

Recent Changes in the Introduced Population of the Fire Ant Solenopsis saevissima (Fr. Smith). E. 0. WILSON and W. L. BROWN, JR 211

The Significance of Floral Constancy Among Bees of the Genus Diadasia (Hymenoptera , Anthophoridae). E. G. LINSLEY and J. W. MACSWAIN .. 219

Evolution in Three Genera of Australian Frogs. A. R. MAIN, A. K. LEE, and M. J. LITTLEJOHN 224

Chromosomal Adaptive Polymorphism in Drosophila persimilis 11. Effects of Population Cage Conditions on Life Cycle Components. ELIOT B. SPIESS 234

The Evolutionary Significance of Rare Matings in Animal Populations. James E. MOSIMANN 246

Loons and Their Wings. ROBERT W. STORER 262

The Loon Wing D. B. 0. SAVILE 263

Crossing Relationships in the Genus Carica. ANAND C. SAWANT 263

Commemts on the Origin and Phylogeny of the Angiosperms: Essay on the Origin of Augiosperms (M. G. Popov) On the Hybrid Origin of the Augiosperms (G. Ledyard Stebbins). M. G. POPOV (posthumous) and G. LEDYARD STEBBINS. 266

The Geographical Distribution of Vertebrates. RALPH GORDON JOHNSON 270

Vol. XII September 1958 No. 3

Experimental Studies of Mimicry in Some North American Butterflies. Part III. Danaus gilippus berenice and Limenitis archippus floridensis. JANE VAN ZANDT BROWER 273

Evolution and Variation in Japanese Species of Trillium. MASATAKA KURABAYASHI 286

Relationships of Allopatric Populations of Spadefoots (Genus Scaphiopus). AARON 0. WASSERMAN 311

Rapid Evolution in Clarkia. HARLAN LEWIS and PETER H. RAVEN 319

Evidence Suggesting a Hybrid Origin for Certain Leafhopper Species. HERBERT H. Ross 337

Possible Origin of Dermal Temperature Regulation. RAYMOND B. COWLES 347

Balanced Polymorphism in Tisbe reticulata, a Marine Copepod. BRUNO BATTAGLIA 358

Tetrapod Limbs and Early Tetrapod Life. ALFRED S. ROMER . 365

Comments on the Definition of Genera. ROBERT F. INGER 370

Genetics of Natural Populations XXVII. The Genetic Changes in Populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura in the American Southwest. THEODOSIUS DOBZHANSKY 385

Hybrid Vigor, Heterosis, and Evolution in Paramecium aurelia. R. W. SIEGEL 402

The Evolutionary Significance of the Scrotum- RAYMOND B. COWLES 417

Interaction Between Genetic Drift and Natural Selection. BRYAN CLARKE and MARK WILLIAMSON 418

Comment on "Interaction Between Genetic Drift and Natural Selection." THEODOSIUS DOBZHANSKY and OLAG PAVLOVSKY 419

Additional Notes on the Origin of Tetrapods. R. B. COWLES . . 419

Transatlantic Connections and Long-distance Dispersal. ASKELL LOVE 421

Hybridization Between Dioecious Hermaphrodite Species in the Caryophyllaceae. H. G. BAKER 423

Vol. XII December 1958 No. 4

Land Bridges and Ecology in Bat Distribution on Islands off the Northern Coast of South America. KARL F. KOOPMAN . 429

Observations of the Ecology of Paramecium, with Comments on Species Problem. NELSON G. HAIRSTON 440

Evolution and Biogeography of the Aplodontid and Mylagualid Rodents. J. ARNOLD SHOTWELL 451

The Origin of Sexual Isolation between Different Lines within a Species. S. KOREF SANTIBANEZ and C. H. WADDINGTON 485

Studies on Heterozygosity and Homeostasis II. Loss of Heterosis in a Constant Environment. R. C. LEWONTIN 494

Natural Selection in Water Snakes (Natrix sipedon L.) on Islands in Lake Erie. JOSEPH H. CAMIN and PAUL R. EHRLICH 504

A Conspectus of Hybridization in the Orchidaceae. HELEN ADAMS and EDGAR ANDERSON 512

Eye Pigment Relationships in Three Species Groups of Drosophila. D. J. NOLTE 519

The Average Effect of Radiation-Induced Mutations on Viability in Drosophila melanogaster. BRUCE WALLACE 532

300 Species of Drosophila in Hawaii?-A Challenge to Geneticists and Evolutionists. ELWOOD C. ZIMMERMAN 557

Morphological Integration. JOHN IMBRIE 558

Report on the Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Evolution. HARLAN LEWIS 560

Vol. XIII March 1959 No. 1

Polygenes in Eye Pigment Production in Drosophila Species. D. J. NOLTE 1

Late Cenozoic Evolution of the Sierran Bigtree Forest. DANIEL I. AXELROD 9

Polyploidy in Gymnosperms. T. N. KHOSHOO 24

Speciation in Butterflies of the Papilio glaucus Group. I. Morphological Relationships and Hybridization. LINCOLN P. BROWER 40

A Study of Hybrids in Colias (Lepidoptera, Pieridae). SHIGERU ALBERT AE 64

Geographical Differentiation of Inversion Systems in Drosophila subobscura. ELISABETH STUMM-ZOLLINGER and ELISABETH GOLDSCHMIDT 89

The Pelycosaur Tympanum and Early Evolution of the Middle Ear. NICHOLAS HOTTON III 99

Adaptive Shift and Dispersal of a Tropical Ant Fauna. EDWARD 0. WILSON 122

Variability and Environment. J. HESLOP-HARRISON 145

The Antennae of Drosophila Females. LEE EHRMAN 147

Some Comments on the Evolution of Arthropoda. HOWARD P. EVANS 147

Perspectives in Marine Biology. RALPH G. JOHNSON 149

Vol. XIII June 1959 No. 2

A Unique Balanced Breeding System in the Vernal Pool Mouse Tails. DONALD E. STONE 151

Nasal Anatomy and the Phylogeny of Reptiles. THOMAS S. PARSONS 175

Chromosomal Evolution in the Subtribe Asterinae. YUKIO HUZIWARA 188

Preadaptation and Multiple Evolutionary Pathways. WALTER J. BOCK 194

Speciation in Butterflies of the Papilio glaucus Group. II. Ecological Relationships and Interspecific Sexual Behavior. LIN-

Evolution in Upper Jurassic Ammonites. BERNHARD ZIEGLER 229

Population Analysis of a Hybrid Swarm between Gambusia affinis and G. heterochir. CLARK HUBBS 236

Contact between the Ranges of Two Allopatric Species of Pocket Gophers. THOMAS E. KENNERLY, JR 247

Evolution of the Psilophyte Paleoflora. DANIFL I. AXELROD 264

Chromosomal Aberrations in Podophyllum peltatum. LESTER J. NEWMAN 276

Is Hordeum agriocrithon the Ancestor of Six-Rowed Cultivated Barley? DANIEL ZOHARY 279

"Origins of Angiospermous Plants." VERNE GRANT 281

Vol. XIII September 1959 No. 3

Multivariate Geographical Variation in the Wolf, Canis lupus L.PIERRE JOLICOEUR 283

Barriers to Gene Exchange within Mimulus guttatus (Scrophulariaceae). ROBERT K. VICKERY, JR 300

Natural Triploids in the Orchard Grass, Dactylis glomerata L. Polyploid Complex and Their Significance for Gene Flow from Diploid to Triploid Levels. DANIEL ZOHARY and UZI NUR 311

Population Studies on Viola lactea Sm. and its Wild Hybrids. D. M. MOORE 318

Limited Penetration of Barriers as a Factor in Evolution. D. B. 0. SAVILE 333

The Evolution of Mammalian Characters. EVERETT C. OLSON 344

Eocene Radiation and Phylogeny of the Rodents. ALBERT E. WOOD 354

Round Trip from Space. MELVIN CALVIN 362

Evolution in the Genus Geum. W. GAJEWSKI 378

Genetics of Natural Populations. XXVIII. Supplementary Data on the Chromosomal Polymorphism in Drosophila willistoni in its Relation to the Environment. A. BRITO DA CUNHA, TH. DOBZHANSKY, 0. PAVLOVSKY and B. SPASSKY 389

Mesozoic Mammals and the Polyphyletic Origin of Mammals. GEORGE GAYLORD SIMPSON 405

The Perianth of Aristolochia- a New Interpretation. JACOB W. LORCH 415

Dating the Origin of Life on Earth. MICHAEL H. BRIGGS 416

Lepturus and Monerma: a Remarkable Example of Parallel Development of Gross Morphology in Grasses. TUGUO TATEOKA 418

Comments on Quantitative Systematics. ROBERT R. SOKAL . 420

Reply to Sokal. ROBERT F. INGER 423

Vol. XIII December 1959 No. 4

Canalization of the Scute Phenotype of Drosophila. J. M. RENDEL 425

Some Aspects of Evolution in Lake Nyasa. GEOFFREY FRYER 440

Call Differentiation in a Complex of Seven Species of Crinia (Anura, Leptodactylidae). MURRAY J. LITTLEJOHN 452

Ecotypic Variation in Nigella arvensis L. YOAV WAISEL 469

Discrete Populations Derived by Interspecific Hybridization and Selection in Nicotiana. HAROLD H. SMITH and KEVIN DALY 476

Area, Climate and Evolution. PHILIP J. DARLINGTON, JR 488

Delphinium gypsophilum, a Diploid Species of Hybrid Origin. HARLAN LEWIS and CARL EPLING 511

Chromosomal Distribution of Mutator- and Radiation-induced Mutations in D. melanogaster. P. T. IVES 526

Ecological and Physiological Observations on Polymorphic Populations of the Toad, Bufo arenarum Hensel, from Argentine. J. M. CEI 532

Hemolymph Polymorphism in a Moth and the Nature of Sex-controlled Inheritance. G. STEHR 537

The Goodness-of-fit Test for Detecting Natural Selection in Random Mating Populations. R. C. LEWONTIN and C. CLARK COCKERHAM 561

Notes on Relative Fitness of Genotypes that Forms a Geometric Progression. C. C. Li 564

On the Evolutionary Importance of Cytoplasmic Sterility in Mosquitoes. ERNST CASPARI and G. S. WATSON 568

Exchange of Genetic Material. PATRICIA ST. LAWRENCE 570

Forerunners of Darwin. CONWAY ZIRKLE 573

Vol. XIV March 1960 No. 1

Courtship and Sensory Preferences in Inbred Lines of Drosophila melanogaster. H. F. HOENIGSBERG and S. KOREF SANTIBANEZ 1

Osteometric Variation and Function in Bats. ROBERT S. BADER and JOHN S. HALL 8

A Study of Plant Competition in Relation to Development. JOSHUA A. LEE 18

Studies on the Japanese Honeybee, Apis cerana cerana Fabricius. VIII. Two Opposing Adaptations in the Post-stinging Behavior of Honeybees. SHOICHI F. SAKAGAMI and YUKIO AKAHIRA 29

Food Preferences of Larval and Adult Drosophila. DONALD M. COOPER 41

The Behavior of Cytoplasmic Pollen Sterility in Populations. G. S. WATSON and ERNST CASPARI 56

Latitudinal Variations in Organic Diversity. ALFRED G. FISCHER 64

Stage of Speciation of Two Allopatric Populations of Chorus Frogs (Pseudacris). W. FRANK BLAIR and MURRAY J. LITTLEJOHN 82

A Cytogenetic Study of Clarkia exilis. FRANK C. VASEK 88

Evolution of Gametophytic and Sporophytic Systems of Self-incompatibility in Angiosperms. KAMLA KANT PANDEY 98

Interaction Between Inversion Polymorphisms of Two Chromosome Pairs in the Grasshopper, Moraba scurra. R. C. LEWONTIN and M. J. D. WHITE 116

A Critique of "Morphological Integration." WALTER J. BOCK 130

Morphological Integration: a Discussion. ROBERT L. MILLER and EVERETT C. OLSON 132

Determination of Drosophila Karyotypes from Adult Males. FRANCES E. CLAYTON 134

Supernumerary Chromosomes in Haplopappus gracilis. R. C. JACKSON 135

Natural Selection in Middle Island Water Snakes (Natrix sipedon L.). PAUL R. EHRLICH and JOSEPH H. CAMIN 136

Possible Evidence of Rapid Evolution in Hawaiian Moths. ELWOOD C. ZIMMERMAN 137

Origins of Angiospermous Plants. G. LEDYARD STEBBINS 138

Evolutionary Morphology of Plants. VERNE GRANT 139

Molecular Biology. G. COHEN-BAZIRE 141

Report of the Secretary 142

Vol. XIV June 1960 No. 2

Mate Preference in Males of Four Species of Gambusiine Fishes. CLARK HUBBS and EXALTON A. DELCO, JR I45

The Pattern of Interspecific Variation in the Genus Oryza: Its Quantitative Representation by Statistical Methods. HIROKO MORISHIMA and HIKOICHI OKA 153

Chromosomal Polymorphism in Egyptian Populations of Drosophila melanogaster. A. M. MOURAD and G. S. MALLAH 166

The Ecological Significance of Correlation Pleiades. R. L. BERG 171

Evolutionary Consequences of Hybrid Sterility and Vigor in Toads. E. PETER VOLPE 181

The Chorda Tympani and Middle Ear as Guides to Origin and Divergence of Reptiles. NICHOLAS HOTTON III 194

The Genetics of Hybrid Sterility in Drosophila paulistorum. LEE EHRMAN 212


Evolution and Variation in Trillium. VII. YOSHIMICHl KOZUKA and MASATAKA KURABAYASHI 232

The Breeding Group and Seed Storage: a Study in Population Dynamics. CARL EPLING, HARLAN LEWIS and FRANCIS M. BALL 238

The Cytoplasmic "Sex-Ratio" Condition in Drosophila. G. S. WATSON 256

Mutant Genes and Linkage Relationships in Drosophila paulistorum.


Evolutionary Fundamentals of Plant Breeding. ASKELL LOVE 270

Darwin, and after Darwin. H. G. BAKER 272

On the Possibly Polyphyletic Origin of Reptiles. PETER PAUL VAUGHN 274

Vol. XIV September 1960 No. 3

Regional Melanism in Aquatic Beetles. FRANK N. YOUNG 277

Cytogenetics of the Grasshopper Moraba scurra. V. Biometric Effects of Chromosomal Inversions. M. J. D. WHITE and LESLEY E. ANDREW 284

Genetic Variability in Korean Populations of Drosophila melanogaster. YONG KYUN PAIK 293

Therapsids as Mammals. LEIGH VAN VALEN 304

Polyphyletic or Monophyletic Ancestry of Mammals, or: What Is a Class? CHARLES A. REED 314

The Endemic Fish Fauna of Lake Lanao, and the Evolution of Higher Taxonomic Categories. GEORGE SPRAGUE MYERS 323

Allochronic Speciation in Field Crickets, and a New Species, Acheta veletis. RICHARD D. ALEXANDER and ROBERT S. BIGELOW 336

Pattern of Chromosome Variability in Drosophila pseudoobscura. ERIC TERZAGHI and DANIEL KNAP 347

Heritability of Geographic Variation in Trunk Segmentation in the Red-Backed Salamander, Plethodon cinereus. RICHARD HIGHTON 351

The Evolution of Thermiphilous Water Mites. RODGER MITCHELL 361

Reproductive Isolation Between Drosophila tolteca and Related Species. STEWART E. ENSIGN 378

Evolution of Communication in Bees and Its Role in Speciation. WARWICK E. KERR 386

Diagnosis of the Classes Reptilia and Mammalia. GEORGE GAYLORD SIMPSON 388

The Antecedents of Man. EDWIN H. COLBERT 392

Fish Evolution in Lake Nyasa. GEORGE SPRAGUE MYERS 394

Evolution of Fishes in Lake Nyasa. GEOFFREY FRYER 396

Genetics and Darwinism. SPENCER W. BROWN 400

Vol. XIV December 1960 No. 4

Ecological Aspects of Flower Evolution. I. Phyletic Evolution. L. VAN DER PIJL 403

Evolution of Cellular Antigens in Columbidae. J. H. STIMPHLING and M. R. IRWIN 417

Differential Radiosensitivity Among the Probable Genome Donors of Bread Wheat. R. A. PAI and M. S. SWAMINATHAN 427

Meiotic Drive in Natural Populations of Drosophila melanogaster. III. Populational Implications of the Segregation-Distorter Locus. YUICHIRO HIRAIZUMI, L. SANDLER and JAMES F. CROW 433

Introgressive Hybridization Between Two Southeastern Treefrogs. JOHN S. MECHAM 445

The Evolutionary Dynamics of Complex Polymorphisms. R. C. LEWONTIN and KEN-ICHI KOJIMA 458

Pseudogamy as an Evolutionary Factor in the Poeciliid Fish Mollienisia formosa. CARYL P. HASKINS, EDNA F. HASKINS and RICHARD E. HEWITT 473

Isolating Mechanisms in Three Sympatric Treefrogs in the Canal Zone. M. J. FOUQUETTE, JR 484

Evolutionary Aspects of Aberrant Meiosis in Some Pentatominae (Heteroptera). FRANZ SCHRADER 498

Evolution and Cybernetics. I. I. SCHMALHAUSEN 509

Mating Preferences in Drosophila. DAVID J. MERRELL 525

Sexual Behavior: a Discussion. H. F. HOENIGSBERG 527

Comments on the Origin of the Amniote Eggs. J. A. TIHEN 528

A Functional Index of Hypsodonty. LEIGH VAN VALEN 531

The Alpha and Omega of Current Evolutionary Thought. I. MICHAEL LERNER 533

Vol.XV March 1961 No. I

Studies on Natural Populations of Drosophila. I. Heat Resistance and Geographical Variation in Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans. A. 0. TANTAWY and G. S. MALLAH 1

Mimetic Assemblages of Sibling Species of Lycid Beetles. E. G. LINSLEY, T. EISNER, and A. B. KLOTS 15

Interrelationships and Evolutionary Patterns of Cellular Antigens in Columbidae. M. R. IRWIN and W. J. MILLER 30

Ecological Aspects of Flower Evolution. II. Zoophilous Flower Classes. L. VAN DER PIJL 44

Changes in the Variation Pattern of a Hybrid Population of Helianthus over an Eight-Year Period. G. L. STEBBINS and K. DALY. 60

Mimicry in Procryptically Colored Snakes of the Genus Dasypeltis. CARL GANS 72

Integration of the Genotype in Geographic Populations of Drosophila pavani. DANKO BRNCIC 92

Thermal Relations of Five Species of Tropical Lizards. RODOLFO RUIBAL 98

A Basic Work on Evolutionary Theory. GEORGE GAYLORD SIMPSON 112

Vol. XV June 1961 No. 2

Vestigial Characters of Termites and Processes of Regressive Evolution. ALFRED E. EMERSON 115

Developmental Homeostasis in Populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura. A. O. TANTAWY 132

The Consequences of Interchange. H. REES 145

Conditions for the Existence of Bacteriophage. ALLAN CAMPBELL 153

Ecotypic Differentiation: Observations and Reflections. J. W. GREGOR and PATRICIA J. WATSON 166

Cowbird Parasitism and the Population of the Kirtland's Warbler. HAROLD MAYFIELD 174

The Adaptive Significance of Intraspecific Trends of Variation in Wing Length and Body Size among Bird Species. T. H. HAMILTON 180

Blood Groups and the Taxonomic Status of American Buffalo and Domestic Cattle. C. STORMONT, W. J. MILLER, and Y. SUZUKI 196

The Evolution and Ecology of Closely Related Species Living in the Same Area. JOHN L. HARPER, J. N. LATWORTHY, I. H. McNAUGHTON, and G. R. SAGAR 209

"Operational Niches" and "Community Interaction Values" as Determined from in vitro Studies of Some Soil Algae. BRUCE C. PARKER and B. L. TURNER 228

Isoallelic Competition in Populations of Drosophila melanogaster Containing a Genetically Heterogeneous Background. BENJAMIN HOCHMAN 239

Morphological and Cytological Variation in Helianthus petiolaris with Notes on Related Species. CHARLES B. HEISER, JR 247

Evidence for Genetic Drift in Indian Rats (Rattus rattus L.). HANS GRUNEBERG 259

Taxonomy, Molecular Biology, and the Peck Order. THEODOSIUS DOBZHANSKY 263

Report on the Fifteenth Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Evolution 266

Vol. XV September 1961 No. 3

Histocompatibility Genetics of Bullfrog Populations. W. H. HILDEMANN and R. HAAS 267

Polyploidy, Phylogeny, and Photoperiodism in Old World Buddleia. RAYMOND J. MOORE 272

A Salamander Color Variant Associated with Glacial Boundaries. GORDON R. THUROW 281

Convergence and Parallelism in Cave Entomobryinae. KENNETH CHRISTIANSEN 288

Reproductive Mechanism of Unisexual and Bisexual Strains of the Viviparous Fish Poeciliopsis. R. JACK SCHULTZ 302

Directions of Differentiation in Populations of Wild Rice, Oryza perennis and 0. sativa f. spontanea. HIROKO MORISHIMA, HIKO-ICHIOKA and WEN-TSAI CHANG 326

Chromosomal Fitness Changes in Experimental Populations of Drosophila persimilis from Timberline in the Sierra Nevada. ELIOT B. SPIESS 340

A Comparison of the Ninhydrin Positive and Phenolic Substances of Parotoid Gland Secretions of Certain Bufo Species and Their Hybrids. DON HUNSAKER, 11, R. E. ALSTON, W. F. BLAIR, and B. L. TURNER 352

Natural Selection Between Two Species of Tephritid Fruit Fly of the Genus Dacus. L. C. BIRCH 360

Some Cytotaxonomic Problems in the Crassulaceae. CHARLES H. UHL 375

Ficus and Blastophaga. H. G. BAKER 378

Lethals in Ontogeny. H. P. DONALD 380

Biological Clocks. P. MARLER 382

Vol.XV December 1961 No. 4

Population Dynamics of a Variant t-Alele in a Confined Population of Wild House Mice. L. C. DUNN and HOWARD LEVENE 385

Divergence in Tripsacum and Zea Chromosomes. MARJORIE P. MAGUIRE 394

Courtship and Sexual Isolation in Drosophila Pavani Brncic and Drosophila gaucha Jaeger and Salzano. SUSI KOREF-SANTIBANEZ and EDUARDO DEL SOLAR 0. 401

Galipagos Tomatoes and Tortoises. CHARLES M. RICK and ROBERT I. BOWMAN 407

Hybrid Swarms Between Wild and Cultivated Rice Species, Oryza perennis and 0. sativa. HIKO-ICHI OKA and WEN-TSAI CHANG 418

Historical Zoogeography of Australian Mammals. GEORGE GAYLORD SIMPSON 431

Frequencies and Allelism of Lethal Factors Within and Between Gene Arrangements. I. San Jacinto Mountains. CARL EPLING, VICTOR E. TINDERHOLT, and R. H. T. MATTONI 447

Floral Evolution in the Family Gramineae. H. T. CLIFFORD 455

The Evolutionary Status of Drosophila serrata. THEODOSIUS DOBZHANSKY and WHARTON B. MATHER 461

Evolution in a Group of Indo-Australian Eumenes (Hymenoptera, Eumenidae). J. VAN DER VECHT 468

Food-Plant Specialization in the Moth Panaxia dominula L. L. M. COOK 478

Peculiar Gene Arrangements in Brazilian Natural Populations of Drosophila ananassae. N. FREIRE-MAIA 486

Heterosis and Fitness in Experimental Populations of Drosophila melanogaster. HAMPTON L. CARSON 496

Outlines of Evolution in the Pseudogamous Ranunculus auricomus Group in Finland. GUNNAR MARKLUND and ARNE ROUSI 510

Studies on European Lampreys. GIUSEPPE S. J. ZANANDREA 523

Chromosomal Adaptive Polymorphism in Drosophila persimilis. III. Mating Propensity of Homokaryotypes. ELIOT B. SPIESS and BOZENA LANGER. Appendix by C. C. LI 535

The East Pacific Barrier and the Distribution of Marine Shore Fishes. JOHN C. BRIGGS 545

Tests for Social Discrimination Between Three Species of the Peromyscus truei Species Group of White-footed Mice. J. R. TAMSITT 555

A Possible Phylogenetic Interpretation of the Annelidicolous Copepod Phyllocola petiti Delamare & Laubier. R. V. GOTTO 564

Larval Competition and the Origin of Tetrapods. FREDERICK E. WARBURTON and NORRIS S. DENMAN 566

Studies in Warning Coloration and Mimicry. III. Evolution of Mullerian Mimicry. JAMES E. HUHEEY 567

Report on the Sixteenth Annual Business Meeting of the Society for the Study of Evolution 569

Vol. XVI March 1962 No. I

A Weighted Hybrid Index. WILLIAM H. HATHEWAY 1

Sympatry in Palearctic Alectoris Partridges. GEORGE E. WATSON 11

Patterns of Chromosomal Evolution in the Immigrans Group of Drosophila. WHARTON B. MATHER 20

Cytology and Evolution in the Fern Genus Pteris L. TREVOR G.WALKER 27

Hybridization Between Amphidiploids and the Evolution of Polyploids in the Wheat (Aegilops-Triticum) Group. DANIEL ZOHARY and MOSHE FELDMAN 44

Ethological Isolating Mechanisms in the Sceloporus torquatus Group of Lizards. DON HUNSAKER II 62

A Unique Type of Sex Chromosome Mechanism in an Australian Mantid. M. J. D.WHITE 75

Cytogenetic Studies in Lilium callosum. IV. Transmission and Multiplication of a Small Supernumerary B Chromosome. HIROSHI KAYANO 86

Population Studies in Predominantly Self-pollinated Species. II. Analysis of Quantitative Genetic Changes in a Bulk-hybrid Population of Barley. R. W. ALLARD and S. K. JAIN 90

Comparative Cytology and the Evolution of Life. LAWRENCE S. DILLON 102

On the Origins of the Major Groups of Animals. J. R. NURSALL 118

Vol. XVI June1962 No. 2

A Study of Fluctuating Assymmetry. LEIGH VAN VALEN 125

Paratoid Glancd Secretions in Two Species Groups of Toads (Genus Bufo). JAMES L. WITTLIFF 143

The Genetic System of Cultivated Diploid Potatoes. KENNETH S. DODDS and G. J. PAXMAN 154 Butterflyweed Revisited. ROBERT E. WOODSON, JR. 168

The Evolution of a Pattern. K. C. SONDHI 186

Phylogeny of the Scitamineae- Morphological and Anatomical Considerations. P. H. TOMLINSON 192

Disruptive Selection and its Effect on a Metrical Character in the Butterfly Papilio dardanus. C. A. CLARK and P. M. SHEPPARD 214

Variation and Covariation of Characters of Alate Pemphigus populi-transversus in Eastern North America. ROBERT R. SOKAL 227

Cytogenetic Studies in Lilium callosum. V. Supernumerary B Chromosomes in Wild Populations. HIROSHI KAYANO 246

Parthenogenesis in Scorpions. F. A. MATTHIESEN 255

Vol. XVI September 1962 No. 3

Catastrophic Selection as a Factor in Speciation. HARLAN LEWIS 257

Growth Fields in the Dentition of Peromyscus. LEIGH VAN VALEN 272

Genetic System, Variation, and Adaptation in Eschscholzia californica. STANTON A. COOK 278

Paedomorphosis, Acceleration, and Caenogenesis in the Evolution of Texas Cretaceous Ammonoids. DAVID L. CLARK 300

The Evolution and Dispersal of the Permian Fusulinid Genera Pseudoschwagerina and Paraschwagerina. CHARLES A. ROSS 306

Lycid Predation by Mimetic Adult Cerambycidae (Coleoptera). T. EISNER, F. C. KAFATOS, and E. G. LINSLEY 316

The Diploid-like Cytological Behavior of Tetraploid Cotton. J. E.

Incipient Taxonomic Divergence in Chironomus (Diptera)? A. B. ACTON 330

Effect of Introgression on the Serpentine Endemism of Quercus durata. M. B. FORDE and D. G. FARIS 338

Cyclic Hybridization as a Survival Mechanism in the New Zealand Forest Flora. J. A. RATTENBURY 348

Amphibian Eggs and the Montane Environment. OLIVE B. GOIN and COLEMAN J. GOIN 364

Interspecific Hybridization in the Ranunculus lappaceus Group.

Vol. XVI December 1962 No. 4

Symposium on Comparative Biological Studies of Crickets Introduction. THOMAS E. MOORE 395

Factors Affecting Developmental Rates and Diapause in Field Crickets. R. S. BIGELOW 396

Factors Responsible for Intraspecific Variation in the Calling Songs of Crickets. THOMAS J. WALKER 407

Central Nervous Control of Sotind Production in Crickets and Some Speculations on its Evolution. FRANZ HUBER 429

Evolutionary Change in Cricket Acoustical Communication. RICHARD D. ALEXANDER 443

The Evolution of Prey-carrying Mechanisms in Wasps. HOWARD E. EVANS 468

Cytogenetic and Evolutionary Studies in Secale. II. Interrelationships of the Wild Species. GURDEV S. KHUSH 484 Population Genetics of the Gynogenetic Teleost, Mollienesia formosa (Girard). KLAUS D. KALLMAN 497

Allometric Relationships in Lions vs. Domestic Cats. D. DWIGHT DAVIS 505

Ecological Diversification in Sympatric Gastropods of the Genus Busycon. ROBERT T. PAINE 515

Evolution of Bird Navigation and the Earth's Axial Precession. SAM L. AGRON 524

Reproductive Isolation Between Drosophila melanogaster and D.pseudoobscura. LEIGH VAN VALEN and LEE EHRMAN 528

Some Remarks on Herbivorous Lizards. HENRYK SZARSKI 529

Minutes of the Seventeenth Annual Business Meeting 531

Vol. 17 March 1963 No. 1

Evolutionary Relationships of North American Toads of the Genus Bufo: A Progress Report. W. FRANK BLAIR 1

Fecundity and Speciation in Lampreys. M. W. HARDISTY 17

Ecogeographic Variation and Introgression in an Avian Visual Signal: The Crest of the Steller's Jay, Cyanocitta stelleri. JERRAM L. BROWN 23

Evolution of Fitness in Experimental Populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura. MONROE W. STRICKBERGER 40

The Estimation of Relative Fitness of Drosophila Populations. II. Experimental Evaluation of Factors Affecting Fitness. J. S. F. BARKER 56

Relative Fitness of Geographic Races of Drosophila serrata. L. C. BIRCH, TH. DOBZHANSKY, P. 0. ELLIOTT, and R. C. LEWONTIN 72

Caenogenetic Differentiation of Mouth Hooks in Drosophilid Larvae. TOYOHI OKADA 84

Courtship and Sexual Isolation in Five Species of the Mesophragmatica Group of the Genus Drosophila. SUSI KOREF-SANTIBANEZ 99

The Antitropical Factor in Cetacean Speciation. J. L. DAVIES 107

Further Notes on Ficus and Blastophaga. IRA J. CONDIT 117

Russian Viewpoints on Evolution. EVERETT C. OLSON 119

Fitness and Environmental Variation. 1. A Study of Some Polymorphic Populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura. J. A. BEARDMORE AND LOUIS LEVINE 121

Larval Color Pattern in Papilio demodocus. C. A. CLARKE, C. G. C. DICKSON, AND P. M. SHEPPARD 130

The Estimation of Relative Fitness of Drosophila Populations. Ill. The Fitness of Certain Strains of Drosophila melanogaster. J. S. F. BARKER 138

Cytogenetics of the Grasshopper Moraba scurra. VII. Geographic Variation of Adaptive Properties of Inversions. M. J. D. WHITE, R. C. LEWONTIN, AND LESLEY E. ANDREW 147

Decreased Variability in the Cestode Hymenolepis diminuta Following Irradiation of Successive Generations. P. S. JOB, A. W. JONES, J. A. DVORAK, AND R. L. KISNER 163

Comparison of Modes of Evolution of Cultivated Forms from Two Wild Rice Species, Oryza breviligulata and 0. perennis. HIROKO MORISHIMA, KOKICHI HINATA, AND HIKO-ICHI OKA 170

On the Measurement of Natural Selection Dependent on Several Loci. P. A. P. MORAN 182

The Interrelationships of the Incipient Species Within the Drosopkila paulistorum Complex. CH. MALOGOLOWKIN 187

Pleistocene Zoogeography of the Lemming, Dicrostonyx. JOHN E. GUILDAY 194

Genetic Structure of Populations. 1. On the Nature of the Genetic Load in the South Amherst Population of Drosophila melanogaster. H. T. BAND AND P. T. IVES 198

Barriers to Interbreeding in Lycopersicon peruvianum. CHARLES M. RICK 216

Population Genetic Studies of Alleles at the a+ Locus in Ephestia kuhniella. WILLIAM B. COTTER, JR. 233

Social Modifications Related to Rareness in Ant Species. EDWARD 0. WILSON 249

The Ecological Genetics of the Mutant Sooty in Populations of Tribolium castaneum. GUNTHER SCHLAGER 254

Illuminating the Tangled Bank. RICHARD F. JOHNSTON 274

Evolution in Periodical Cicadas. GEORGE W. BYERS 275

The Evolution of Diversity in Animals. KENNETH B. ARMITAGE 276

Vol. 17 September 1963 No. 3

The Measurement of Effective Population Number. MOTOO KIMURA AND JAMES F. CROW 279

The Evolution of the Structural Pattern in a Rye B Chromosome. A. LIMA-DE-FARIA 289

Karyotype Differentiation in Trillium sessile and T. ovatum in the Western United States. MASATAKA KURABAYASHI 296

Genetic Structure of Populations. II. Viabilities and Variances of Heterozygotes in Constant and Fluctuating Environments. H. T. BAND 307

The Evolution of Variation and Distributional Patterns in European Populations of the Three-spined Stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. JOACHIM MUNZING 320

Genetics of Natural Populations. XXXIII. A Progress Report on Genetic Changes in Populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura and Drosophila persimilis in a locality in California. THEODOSIUS DOBZHANSKY 333

The Genetics of a Naturally Occurring Coat-Color Mutation in the California Vole. WILLIAM Z. LIDICKER, JR. 340

Cytology and Phylogeny of Liverworts. GEOFFREY K. BERRIE 347

A Multiple Interchange Variant in a Natural Population of Anemone cylindrica. MARGARET HEIMBURGER AND IKUKO E. KAMITAKAHARA 358

Further Comments on Herbivorous Lizards. JOHN H. OSTROM 368

A Theorem on Possible Kinds of Mating Systems Which Tend to Increase Heterozygosity. ALFRED F. NAYLOR 369

Human Evolution. WILLIAM M. BASS 371

Notes and Comments on the Implications of Evolution. ELWOOD B. EHRLE 372

Vol. 17 December 1963 No. 4

An Equilibrium Theory of Insular Zoogeography. ROBERT H. MACARTHUR AND EDWARD 0. WILSON 373

Isolation, Endemism, and Multiplication of Species in the Darwin Finches. TERRELL H. HAMILTON AND IRA RUBINOFF 388

Interactions between Major Genes and Polygenes in the Determination of the Mimetic Patterns of Papilio dardanus. C. A. CLARKE AND P. M. SHEPPARD 404

On Some Contradictions in General Taxonomy and Evolution. ALEXANDER A. LUBISCHEW 414

The Evolution of the Mammalian jaw. A. W. CROMPTON 431

The "Nondescript" Blackbird from Arizona: An Intergeneric Hybrid. ROBERT K. SELANDER AND ROBERT W. DICKERMAN 440

Competition and Blackbird Social Systems. GORDON H. ORIANS AND GERALD COLLIER 449

The Cytogenetics of Gossypium and the Origin of New World Cottons. LYLE L. PHILLIPS 460

Population Studies in Predominantly Self-Pollinated Species. IV. Seasonal Fluctuations in Estimated Values of Genetic Parameters in Lima Bean Populations. R. W. ALLARD AND P. L. WORKMAN 470

"Heterosis" in Drosophila. DAVID J. MERRELL 481

Studies on the Advantage of Heterokaryotypes in the Tumorous-Head Strain of Drosophila melanogaster. CHARLES M. WOOLF AND KATHLEEN CHURCH 486

Equilibrium under Differential Selection in the Sexes. C. C. LI 493

The Compilospecies Concept. JACK R. HARLAN AND J. M. J. DE WET 497

Density and Distribution of Drosophila polymorpha and its Color Alleles in South America. WILLIAM B. HEED 502

Distribution and Interrelationships of Incompatibility Barriers in the Lycopersicon hirsutum Humb. and Bonpl. Complex. FRANKLIN W. MARTIN 519

The Role of Somatic Change in Evolution. GREGORY BATESON 529

The Sound-Conducting Systems of Lizards without Tympanic Membranes. M. J. TOERIEN 540

Back Issues Reprinted 547

Cold Resistance of Karyotypes in Drosophila persimilis from Timberline of California. NANCY MOHN AND ELIOT B. SPIESS 548

Polymorphism and the Balanced Polygenic Combination. P. A. PARSONS 564

Chiasma Frequencies in Lolium Populations. H. REES AND K. AHMAD 575

Cranial Kinesis and the Morphology of the Middle Ear: Two Possibly Related Features. ALBERTO M. SIMONETTA 580

Natural Selection, Social Organization, Hairlessness, and the Australopithecine Canine. G. E. HUTCHINSON 588

Phylogeny and Cortical Evolution in Chiroptera. GUILLERMO MANN 589

A Synthesis of Evolutionary Theory. CHARLES D. MICHENER 592

Vol. 18 March 1964 No. I

Ecological Rules, Body-Heat Regulation, and Human Evolution. EUGENE SCHREIDER 1

Speciation in Drosophila rubida. WHARTON B. MATHER 10

Chromosomal Repatterning in Clarkia rhomboidea as Evidence for Post-Pleistocene Changes in Distribution. THEODORE MOSQUIN 12

The Evolution of Clarkia unguiculata Derivatives Adapted to Relatively Xeric Environments. FRANK C. VASEK 26

Relationships Between Two Subspecies in a Population of Prunella vulgaris L. ANDREW P. NELSON. 43

Barriers to Gene Exchange Between Members of the Mimulus guttatus Complex (Scrophulariaceae). ROBERT K. VICKERY, JR 52

Population Studies on Lead-Tolerant Agrostis tenuis. D. JOWETT 70

Recombination in Six Homopterous Families. OLLI HALKKA 81

The Evolution of Territoriality in the Odonata. CLIFFORD JOHNSON 89

The Evolving Karyotype of Rumex hastatulus. BEN W. SMITH 93

The Evolution of Low Reproductive Rates in Birds. DEAN AMADON 105

Further Examples of Variation of Populations of Cepaea nemoralis with Habitat. J. D. CURREY, R. W. ARNOLD, AND M. A. CARTER 111

The Structure of Respiratory Organs in Relation to Body Size in Amphibia. HENRYK SZARSKI 118

Accumulation of Epistatic Gene Complexes. KEN-ICHI KOJIMA AND HENRY E. SCHAFFER 127

A Theory Which Predicts Stable Equilibrium for Inversion Polymorphisms in the Grasshopper Moraba scurra. R. W. ALLARD AND CONRAD WEHRHAHN 129

Relationships Between Habitat and Terrestrial Breeding in Amphibians. J. C. POYNTON 131

Evolution of Neotropical Cricetine Rodents. ERNST MAYR 132

Feeding Adaptations in the Waterfowl. WALTER J. BOCK 133

The Evolution of Animal Species. G. LEDYARD STEBBINS 134

Evolution of the Human Brain. PAUL G. ROOFE 138

Evolutionary Processes. THEODOSIUS DOBZHANSKY 139

Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Evolution 141

Vol. 18 June 1964 No. 2

The Geography of Flower Color in Butterflyweed. ROBERT E. WOODSON, JR. 143

Genetics of Natural Populations. XXXV. A Progress Report on Genetic Changes in Populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura in the American Southwest. TH. DOBZHANSKY, W. W. ANDERSON, 0. PAVLOVSKY, B. SPASSKY, AND C. J. WILLS 164

DNA Base Composition as an Index to Evolutionary Affinities in Marine Bacteria. WILLIAM L. BELSER 177

Hybridization and Introgression in Cowania and Purshia. HOWARD C. STUTZ AND L. KAY THOMAS 183

Mechanical Isolation of Salvia apiana and Salvia mellifera (Labiatae). KAREN A. GRANT AND VERNE GRANT 196

Outcrossing in Natural Populations. I. The Breckenridge Mountain Population of Clarkia exilis. FRANK C. VASEK 213

Blood Group Polymorphism and Inbreeding in Natural Populations of the Deer Mouse Peromyscus maniculatus. DAVID I. RASMUSSEN 219

Geographic Variation in Nest Size among Species of Peromyscus. JOHN A. KING., DIANNE MAAS, AND R. G. WEISMAN 230

Evolutionary Features of Athleta (Eocene, Gastropoda) from the Gulf Coast Plain. PETER U. RODDA AND W. L. FISHER 235

Reproductive Isolation between the Sibling Species Drosophila pavani and Drosophila gaucha. Susi KOREF-SANTIBANEZ 245

Evolution of Polygamy in the Long-billed Marsh Wren. JARED VERNER 252

Geographic Isolation and Mating Call Differentiation in Crinia signifera. M. J. LITTLEJOHN 262

Influence of the Weight of Worker Bees on Division of Labor. WARWICK E. KERR AND NILTON J. HEBLING 267

Insemination and Sperm Storage in Drosophila melanogaster. JOANNE K. DEVRIES 271

Multiple mating and Effective Population Size in Cepia nemoralis. JAMES MURRAY 283

The Control of Interspecific Hybridization in Darwinia. BARBARA G. BRIGGS 292

Utilization of Chemical Patterns in the Analysis of Hybridization between Baptisia leucantha and B. sphaerocarpa. JANIECE McHALE AND R. E. ALSTON 304

Competition among Genotypes in the Housefly at Varying Densities and Proportions (The Green Strain). SATISH C. BHALLA AND ROBERT R. SOKAL 312

Ethological Isolation in the Cenospecies Peromyscus lecopus. HOWARD MCCARLY 331

Fire Melanism in Some African Grasshoppers. BRIAN HOCKING 332

Population Biology of the Butterfly, Euphydryas editha. I. Barriers to Multiple Insemination. PATRICIA A. LABINE 335

Catastrophic Selection and Edaphic Endemism. PETER H. RAVEN 336

On Models Predicting Abundance of Species and Endemics for the Darwin Finches in the Galapagos Archipelago. T. H. HAMILTON AND I. RUBINOFF 339

Vol. 18 September 1964 No. 3

Relation between Adaptive Values and Composition of the Population in Drosophila ananassae. YOSHIKO N. TOBARI 343

Evolutionary Pathways of the Senecio lautus Alliance in New Zealand and Australia. ROBERT ORNDUFF 349

Flower Dimorphism and Self-incompatibility in Narcissus tazetta L. RIVKA DULBERGER 361

Frequency-dependent Selection for the Dominance of Rare Polymorphic Genes. BRYAN CLARKE 364

Incompatibility Studies in Oenothera: The Distribution of S1 Alleles in biennis 1 Populations. ERICH STEINER 370

The Cost of Evolution vs. the Cost of Not Evolving. ALICE M. BRUES 379

Genetic Structure of Populations. III. Natural Selection and Concealed Genetic Variability in a Natural Population of Drosophila melanogaster. H. T. BAND 384

Interspecific Crossing and Development of Hybrids between the Japanese Species of Teleogryllus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). FUMIYE OHMACHI AND SINZO MASAKI 405

Chromosomal Races in the Australian Grasshopper Moraba viatica in a Zone of Geographic Overlap. M. J. D. WHITE, H. L. CARSON, AND J. CHENEY 417

Mating Speed Control by Gene Arrangement Carriers in Drosophila persimilis. ELIOT B. SPIESS AND BOZENA LANGER 430

Neighborhood Size in the Rusty Lizard, Sceloporus olivaceus. HAROLD W. KERSTER 445

Adaptive Modifications in Frogs of an Isolated Highland Fauna in Central Africa. R. F. LAURENT 458

The Evolution of an Island Population of the House Mouse. R. J. BERRY 468

A Possible Origin for Rabbits. LEIGH VAN VALEN 484

Stabilizing Selection for Mating Fitness in Natural Populations of Tetraopes. L. G. MASON 492

Vocal Variation in Two Species of Chorus Frogs, Pseudacris nigrita and Pseudacris clarki, in Texas. TED C. MICHAUD 498

Variation in Style Length in Relation to Outbreeding in Mirabilis (Nyctaginaceae). H. G. BAKER 507

Incidence of Polyploidy Correlated with Ecological Gradients. C. RITCHIE BELL 510

Polymorphism and the Balanced Polygenic Complex-A Comment. P. A. PARSONS 512

Numerical Taxonomy. MAURICE T. JAMES 513

Vol. 18 December 1964 No. 4

The Mating System and Genetic Variability in Natural Populations of Collinsia heterophylla. JON WEIL AND R. W. ALLARD 515

The Evolution of a Pattern of Sound Production Associated with Courtship in the Characid Fish, Glandulocauda inequalis. KEITH NELSON 526

The Genetics of Drosophila subobscura Populations. I. Inversion Polymorphism in Populations of Southern Greece. COSTAS B. KRIMBAS 541

Evolution in the Genus Cucurbita. THOMAS W. WHITAKER AND W. P. BEMIS 553

Studies on Natural Populations of Drosophila. III. Morphological and Genetic Differences of Wing Length in Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans in Relation to Season. A. 0. TANTAWY 560

Origin and Evolution of the Biota of Southeastern North America: Evidence from the Fossil Plant Record. ALAN GRAHAM 571

Butterflies and Plants: A Study in Coevolution. PAUL R. EHRLICH AND PETER H. RAVEN 586

The Distribution of Self-incompatibility Alleles in Populations. SEWALL WRIGHT 609

Population Genetics of the Mating Type Locus in Tetrahymena pyriformis, Variety 8. EDUARDO ORIAS AND F. JAMES ROHLF 620

Competitive Exclusion between the Rodent Genera Microtus and Clethrionomys. AUSTIN W. CAMERON 630

The Theory of Fitness in a Heterogeneous Environment. IV. The Adaptive Significance of Gene Flow. RICHARD LEVINS 635

Adaptation and Differentiation of Temperate Phylogenetic Lines from Tropical Ancestors in Empoasca. HERBERT H. ROSS. GEORGE C. DECKER, AND HUGH B. CUNNINGHAM 639

Differential Evolutionary Activity in Bryophytes. KULDIP R. KHANNA 652

Polymorphism in the Isopod Sphaeroma rugucauda. D. A. WEST 671

The Distribution of the Abnormal Hemoglobin Genes and Their Significance for Human Evolution. FRANK B. LIVINGSTONE 6S5

Bridging Interspecific Incompatibility, in the Ascomycetous Genus Cochliobolus. R. R. NELSON 700

Empathic Learning and the Mimicry of African Snakes. CARL GANS 705

Evidence for Hybridization between the Blotched and Unblotched Subspecies of the Salamander Ensatina eschscholtzi. CHARLES W. BROWN AND ROBERT C. STEBBINS 706

Vol. 19 March 1965 No. 1

Serum Protein Variation in an Interspecies Hybrid Swarm of Turtles of the Genus Pseudemys. JOHN W. CRENSHAW 1

On Rates of Evolution of Unit Characters and Character Complexes. ABRAHAM LERMAN 16

The Independent Aneuploid Origin of Two Species of Chaenactis (Compositae) from a Common Ancestor. DONALD W. KYHOS 26

Fertility and Size Inheritance in a Peromyscus Species Cross. WALLACE D. DAWSON 44

Population Studies of Alpine and Subalpine Races of Conifers and Willows in the California High Sierra Nevada. JENS CLAUSEN 56

The Distribution of the Dominant Burnsi Gene in the Leopard Frog, Rana pipiens. DAVID J. MERRELL 69

Inheritance of Shell Size in the Snail Arianta arbustorum. L. M. COOK 86

A Study of Sexual Isolation Between Certain Strains of Drosophila paulistorum. CH. MALOGOLOWKIN-COHEN, A. SOLIMA SIMMONS, and H. LEVENE 95

The Evolution of Self-pollination in Clarkia xantiana. D. M. MOORE and HARLAN LEWIS 104

Grades and Clades Among Rodents. ALBERT E. WOOD 115

Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. CURT TEICHERT 131

The Origin of Adaptations. ERNST MAYR 134

Vol. 19 June l965 No. 2

Treeshrews, Primates, and Fossils. LEIGH VAN VALEN 137

Outcrossing in Natural Populations. II. Clarkia unguiculata. F. C. VASEK 152

A Quantitative Method for Comparing the Karyotypes of Related Species. PETER G. MARTIN AND DAVID L. HAYMAN 157

Further Evidence for Natural Hybridization between Tetraploid Species of Aegilops Section Pleionathera. MOSHE FELDMAN 162

Fertility among Races of the Field Mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) and Their Failure to Form Hybrids with the Yellow-necked Mouse (Apodemus flavicollis). P. A. JEWELL AND P. J. FULLAGAR 175

The Genomic Allocation of the Principal Foliar-gland Loci in Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense. JOSHUA A. LEE 182

The Evolution of Bill Size Differences among Sympatric Congeneric

Species of Birds. THOMAS W. SCHOENER 189

Variability in Characters Undergoing Rapid Evolution, an Analysis of Microtus Molars. R. D. GUTHRIE 214

Premating Isolation in the Hyla ewingi Complex (Anura: Hylidae). M. J. LITTLEJOHN 234

New Evidence Concerning the Original Basic Chromosome Number of Angiosperms. PETER H. RAVEN AND DONALD W. KYHOS 244

A Review of Masterometry. GEORGE GAYLORD SIMPSON 249

Variation and Covariation of Gene Frequencies in Subdivided Populations. MASATOSHI NEI 256

Prey Selection by a Non-specific Predator. LARRY G. MASON 259

An Unusual Case of Mimicry. HERBERT W. LEVI 261

Phenetic and Phylogenetic Classification. PAUL R. EHRLICH 263

Zoogeography of Oceania and Its Present Problems. MIKLOS D. F. UDVARDY 264

This View of Life, The World of an Evolutionist. PAUL G. ROOFE 266

Evolution of Nestbuilding in Weaverbirds. RICHARD F. JOHNSTON 267

Vol. 19 December 1965 No. 4

Hybrid Zones and Reproductive Isolation. R. S. BIGELOW 449

Direct Observation of Sexual Isolation Between Allopatric and Between Sympatric Strains of the Different Drosophila paulistorum Races. LEE EHRMAN 459

Studies on Hybridization in Scolopostethus Fieber (Heteroptera : Lygaeidae). A. C. EYLES AND R. E. BLACKITH 465

Island Populations and Gene Flow in the Deer Mouse, Peromyscus leucopus. WALTER SHEPPE 480

On the Real Nature of Transantarctic Relationships. LARS BRUNDIN 496

Population Genetics in the American Tropics. I. Concealed Recessives in Different Bioclimatic Regions. H. F. HOENIGSBERG AND Y. G. DE NAVAS 506

Selection in Natural Populations. III. Measurement and Estimation. LEIGH VAN VALEN 514

Behavior and Form in the Evolution of Cave Collembola. KENNETH CHRISTIANSEN 529

Sibling Species of the Drosophila serrata Group. FRANCISCO JOSE AYALA 538

The Estimation of Fitness from Genotypic Frequencies. TIMOTHY PROUT 546

Mating Interference: A New Test of Sexual Isolation. BRUCE WALLACE AND NANCY FELTHOUSEN 552

Fertility of Interspecific F1 Hybrids and Hybrid Derivatives Involving Tetraploid Species of Aegilops Section Pleionathera. MOSHE FELDMAN 556

Chromosome Pairing Between Differential Genomes in Hybrids of Tetraploid Aegilops Species. MOSHE FELDMAN 563

Population Structure and Effective Size of a Lizard Population. DONALD W. TINKLE 569

Ecological Genetics. ROBERT R. SOKAL 574

The Historico-Philosophical Background of Evolutionary Thought. ELWOOD B. EHRLE 575

Minutes of the Twentieth Annual Business Meeting 578

VOI. 19 September 1965 No. 3

Adaptation and the Form-Function Complex. WALTER J. ]Boc K AND GERD VON WAHLERT -- - - - - -- ---- ------------- -- -- -- ------------------ 269

Geographic Variation of Quantitative Characters in Populations of Drosophila pseudoobscure. ALEXANDER SOKOLOFF --------- -------------- 300

A Method for Deducing Branching Sequences in Phylogeny. josEPH H. CAmiN AND ROBERT R. SOKAL ----------- -- ------------------- ----------------- --------- 31.1

The Population Biology of the Butterfly, Eupkydryas editka. 11. The Structure of the jasper Ridge Colony. PAUL R. EHRLICH - ---------- 327

Sexual Selection, Geotaxis, and Chromosomal Polymorphism in Experimental Populations of Drosophila pseudoobscure. LEF EHRMAN, B. SPASSKY, 0. PAVLOVSKY, AND TH. DOBZHANSKY --------- - --- --- - ---- 337

The Study of Morphological Integration. LEIGH VAN VALEN -- -- ------- - 347

The [email protected] of Relative Frequency of Species in Competition. TAKAsHiNAmsE - -------------- --- -- --------------------- ----------- - - --------- ----------------------- 350

The Adaptive Significance of Some Size Trends in Island Birds. P. R. GRANT -- -- ------------------------------------- ---- ------------------------------- - --------- ----- 355

Evolution and Symbiosis in the Genus CkloreUa and [email protected] Algae. STEPHEN J. KARARASHIAN AND MmmENE W. @KAsHiAN -------- 368

Heritability of Dental Characters in the House Mouse. [email protected] S. BADER 378

The Process of Introgression Between Aegilops Polyploids: Natural Hybridization Between A. variabilis, A. ovata, and A.biuncialis. BATIAPAZY AND DANIEL ZOI-IARY -------------------------- - --------------------------------- ----- 385

The Interpretation of Population Structure by F-Statistics with Special Regard to Systems of Mating. SEWALL WRIGHT ------------------------------- t 395

Chromosomal Aberrations in a Natural Population of Ckiron&mus tentans Exposed to Chronic Low-Level RadiatiOn. B. G. BLAYLOCK ------------ 421

Behavioral Discrimination Shown by Allopatric and Sympatric Males of Pero,myscus eremicus and Peromyscus californicus Between Females of the Same Two Species. MICHAFL H. SMITH -------------------------------- 430

The Hydrocoel and the Ancestry of the Chordates. LAWRENCE S. DILLON 436 Announcements ---------- - - - ----------- - - - ------- ----------- -------------------------------- 447

Vol. 20 March 1966 No. I

Origin of Deciduous and Evergreen Habits in Temperate Forests. DANIEL I. AXELROD 1

Ecological and Cytogenetic Studies of Drosophila flavopilosa, a Neotropical Species Living in Cestrum Flowers. DANKO BRNCIC 16

The Biota of Long-distance Dispersal. II. Loss of Dispersibility in Pacific Compositae. SHERWIN CARLQUIST 30

Morphological Variation in Natural and Experimental Populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura and Drosophila persimilis. ALEXANDER SOKOLOFF 49

Selection for Increased Fertility of Female Quail When Mated to Male Chickens. LESLIE E. HALEY, HANS ABPLANALP, AND KURIO ENYA 72

Chromosomal Fitness Changes in Experimental Populations of Drosophila persimilis from Timberline. II. Re-extracted Chromosomes. ELIOT B. SPIESS 82

On the Origin of the Jumping Mechanism in Frogs. CARL GANS AND THOMAS S. PARSONS 92

Experiments on Random Genetic Drift and Natural Selection in Drosophila pseudoobscura. A. SOLIMA SIMMONS 100

Developmental Rate and Competitive Ability in Tribolium. PETER S. DAWSON 104

Intraspecies Competition, Viability, and Longevity in Experimental Populations. GRACE B. CANNON 117

Vol. 20 June1966 No. 2

The Periodical Cicada Problem. I. Population Ecology. MONTE LLOYD AND HENRY S. DYBAS 133

Studies on the Genome Constitution of Triticum timopheevi Zhuk. II. The T. timopheevi Complex and Its Origin. E. B. WAGENAAR 150

The Population Biology of the Butterfly Euphydryas editha. III. Selection and the Phenetics of the Jasper Ridge Colony. PAUL R. EHRLICH AND LARRY G. MASON 165

A General Theory of Clutch Size. MARTIN L. CODY 174

The Evolution of the Genus Monarda (Labiatae). RAINER W. SCORA 185

Correlation and the Structure of Introgressive Populations. MAJOR M. GOODMAN 191

Masterometry and Evolution, Again. M. CRUSAFONT-PAIRO AND J. TRUYOLS SANTONJA 204

Distribution, Coexistence, and Competition of Whirligig Beetles. CONRAD A. ISTOCK 211

The Temporal Component of Diversity among Species of Birds. ROBERT E. RICKLEFS 235

A Case of Gene Homology in Clarkia. FRANK C. VASEK 243

Patterns of Evolution on Islands. VERNE GRANT 245

Insects of Campbell Island. R. L. USINGER 246

Notice of Resignation of the Editor 247

Vol. 20 September 1966 No. 3

Coevolution of Mutualism between Ants and Acacias in Central America. DANIEL H. JANZEN 249

The Relationships of the Tree Shrews: The Evidence of the Nervous System. C. B. G. CAMPBELL 276

Zoogeography and Evolution. JOHN C. BRIGGS 282

Functional Morphology and Evolution of the Ceratopsian Dinosaurs. JOHN H. OSTROM 290

The Origin of Dioecism from Heterostyly in Nymphoides (Menyanthaceae). ROBERT ORNDUFF 309

Hybridization as a Source of Variation for Adaptation to New Environments. R. C. LEWONTIN AND L. C. BIRCH 315

The Adaptive Significance of Gastropod Torsion. MICHAEL T. GHISELIN 337

The Evolution, Functioning and Breakdown of Heteromorphic Incompatibility Systems. I. The Plumbaginaceae. H. G. BAKER 349

Variation in Blood Group Frequencies in Populations of Song Sparrows of the San Francisco Bay Region. GEORGE T. FERRELL 369

Population Variability of Cercocarpus in the White Mountains of California as Related to Habitat. ROBERT BRAYTON AND H. A. MOONEY 383

Feeding Specializations and the Classification of Terrestrial Salamanders. PHILIP J. REGAL 392

The Adaptive Radiation of the Phenacodontid Condylarths and the Origin of the Perissodactyla. LEONARD B. RADINSKY 408

Genetics of Natural Populations. XXXVIII. Continuity and Change in Populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura in Westem United States. TH. DOBZHANSKY, W. W. ANDERSON, AND 0. PAVLOVSKY 418

Nearly Rooted Incisors in an Abnormal Rat, and Control of Tooth Growth. LEIGH VAN VALEN 428

Evolution and Comparative Chorology. ASKELL LOVE AND DORIS LOVE 431

Vol. 20 December 1966 No. 4

The Biota of Long-distance Dispersal. IV. Genetic Systems in the Floras of Oceanic Islands. SHERWIN CARLQUIST 433

Body Sizes of Poikilotherm Vertebrates at Different Latitudes. C. C. LINDSEY 456

The Periodical Cicada Problem. II. Evolution. MONTE LLOYD AND HENRY S. DYBAS 466

Hybridization and Its Taxonomic Implications in the Scaevola gaudichaudiana Complex of the Hawaiian Islands. GEORGE W. GILLETT 506

Birds as Agents of Long-distance Dispersal for Disjunct Plant Groups of the Temperate Western Hemisphere. ROBERT WILLIAM CRUDEN 517

Premating Isolating Mechanisms in Sympatric and Allopatric Hyla regilla and Hyla californiae. R. W. BALL AND D. L. JAMESON 533

The Origin and Significance of Intraspecific Polyploidy: Experimental Evidence from Solanum chacoense. G. E. MARKS 552

The Evolutionary Significance of Mountain Sheep Horns. VALERIUS GEIST 558

Self-incompatibility Alleles in the Population of Oenothera organensis. JACK L. CROSBY 567

The Population Biology of the Butterfly, Euphydryas editha. IV. Sperm Precedence-a Preliminary Report. PATRICIA A. LABINE 580

Estimation of Conservatism of Characters by Constancy within Biological Populations. JAMES S. FARRIS 587

Monthly Frequency Changes of Drosophila pseudoobscura Third Chromosome Gene Arrangements in a California Locality. M. W. STRICKBERGER AND C. J. WILLS 592

Immunology and Rates of Enzyme Evolution in the Amphibia in Relation to the Origins of Certain Taxa. STANLEY N. SALTHE AND NATHAN 0. KAPLAN 603

Cytogenetics of Rubus. V. Natural Hybridization between R. procerus P. J. Muell. and R. laciniatus Willd. R. K. BAMMI AND H. P. OLMO 617

Selection for and against Ethological Isolation between Drosophila pseudoobscura and Drosophila persimilis. SEYMOUR KESSLER 634

Comparative Studies of Arrangements within and between Populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura. STEPHEN H. MAYHEW, STEPHEN K. KATO, FRANCIS M. BALL, AND CARL EPLING 646

The Mimetic Significance of Erythrolamprus aesculapii ocellatus Peters from Tobago. M. G. EMSLEY 663

Climatological Distribution of a Grasshopper Supernumerary Chromosome. JOHN F. BARKER 665

Vol. 21 March 1967 No. 1

An Estimate of the Potential Evolutionary Increase in Species Density in the Polynesian Ant Fauna. EDWARD 0. WILSON AND ROBERT W. TAYLOR 1

Predator Responses to Artificial Batesian Mimics Released in a Neotropical Environment. LINCOLN PIERSON BROWER, LAURENCE M. COOK, AND HARVEY J. CROZE 11

The Homologies of the Labyrinthodont Centrum. A. L. PANCHEN 24

Studies on Natural Populations of Drosophila. VI. Competition between Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans. A. 0. TANTAWY AND M. H. SOLIMAN 34

Barriers to Hybridization between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera:Culicidae). SR. M. GERALD LEAHY, C.S.J., AND GEORGE B. CRAIG, JR 41

Host Exploitation of Two Closely Related Water Mites. RODGER MITCHELL 59

A Study of the Genus Chrotogonus (Orthoptera). VIII. Patterns of Variation in External Morphology. ROBERT E. BLACKITH AND D. KEITH McE. KEVAN 76

The Population Biology of the Butterfly, Euphydryas editha. V. Character Clusters and Asymmetry. LARRY G. MASON, PAUL R. EHRLICH, AND THOMAS C. EMMEL 85

Variation in Phlox divaricata. DONALD A. LEVIN 92

Drosophila imaii, a New Sibling Species Related to Drosophila bifasciata. DAIGORO MORIWAKI, OSAMU KITAGAWA, AND TOYOHI OKADA 109

The Effect of Temperature on Reproduction in Some Morphs of the Landsnail Cepaea nemoralis (L.). H. WOLDA 117

A Comparative Study of the Serum Proteins of the Species of Taricha and their Hybrids. MICHAEL COATES 130

The Formation of Subgroups by the Development of Inbreeding Systems in a Trillium Population. ICHIRO FUKUDA 141

Two Parapatric Species of Pocket Gophers. TERRY A. VAUGHAN 148

Evolutionary Morphogenesis. K. C. SONDHI 159

Matroclinous Inheritance and Clonal Structure of a Mexican Population of the Gynogenetic Fish, Poecilia formosa. REZNEAT M. DARNELL, ELIZABETH LAMB, AND PETER ABRAMOFF 168

Certainty and Circularity in Evolutionary Taxonomy. DAVID L. HULL 174

A Proposition on the Population Dynamics of the Sterile t Alleles in the House Mouse. S. S. Y. YOUNG 190

Herbivory in Lizards. OTTO M. SOKOL 192

Survival and Gestation in Pigs. D. F. Cox 195

Evolutionary and Ecological Relationships between Three Species of Blackbirds (Icteridae) in Central Mexico. JOHN WILLIAM HARDY 196

Increase in the Variance of Fitness Due to Selection. FREDERICK E. WARBURTON 197

Minutes of the Twenty-first Annual Business Meeting. H. G. BAKER 199

Vol. 21 June 1967 No. 2

Drought, Diastrophism, and Quantum Evolution. DANIEL I. AXELROD 201

The Origin and Evolutionary Development of Heterostyly in the Angiosperms. BERYL S. VUILLEUMIER 210

Population Studies in Predominantly Self-pollinated Species. VIII. Genetic Variability in the Festzica microstachys Complex. L. W. KANNENBERG AND R. W. ALLARD 227

Outcrossing in Natural Populations. IlI. The Deer Creek Population of Clarkia exilis. F. C. VASEK 241

Variations in the Breeding Systems of a Wild Rice, Oryza perennis. HIKO-ICHI OKA AND HIROKO MORISHIMA 249

Studies of Natural Populations of Mas. 1. Biochemical Polymorphisms and Their Bearing on Breeding Structure. MICHAEL L. PETRAS 259

Mating Behavior and Fitness as a Function of Single Allele Differences in Ephestia

kuhniella Z. W. B. COTTER, JR. 275

The Adaptive Value of Sexual Dimorphism: I, Anisogamy. FRANCESCO M. SCUDO 285

Developmental Rate and Competitive Ability in Tribolium. II. Changes in Competitive Ability Following Further Selection for Developmental Rate. PETER S. DAWSON 292

The Estimation of Relative Fitness of Drosophila Populations. V. Generation Interval and Heterogeneity in Competition. J. S. F. BARKER 299

Independent Evolution of a Polygenic System in Isolated Populations of the Fungus Schizophyllum commune. G. SIMCHEN 310

Genetic Differentiation and Stability of Some Characters that Distinguish Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. from Solanum pennellii Cor. MOSHE TAL 316

The Identification of Hybrid Plants in Segregating Populations. MAJOR M. GOODMAN 334

Further Evidence Bearing upon the Origin of Extra Diminutive Chromosomes in Oenothera hookeri. RALPH E. CLELAND 341

Serum Proteins of Salamanders of the Ambystoma jeffersonianum Complex, and the Origin of the Triploid Species of This Group. THOMAS M. UZZELL, JR. AND SARAH M. GOLDBLATT 345

Evolutionary Relationships in the Avian Genus Columba as Indicated by Ovalbumin Tryptic Peptides. KENDALL W. CORBIN 355

The Development of a Phylogeny of Frogs. ROBERT F. INGER 369

Evolutionary Patterns in Pelycosaurian Reptiles: A Factor-Analytic Study. STEPHEN JAY GOULD 385

Selection in Natural Populations. 6. Variation Genetics. and More Graphs for Estimation. LEIGH VAN VALEN 402

Comments on "The Adaptive Significance of Gastropod Torsion." ROGER L. BATTEN, HAROLD B. ROLLINS. AND STEPHEN JAY GOULD 405

Evolution, Ecology and Behavior of Sand Wasps. CARL W. RETTENMEYER 407

Vol. 21 September1967 No. 3

Cytogenetic Evidence for Long Continued Stability in the Genus Plantago. G. LEDYARD STEBBINS AND ALVA DAY 409

Herpetogeography of Puerto Rico. IV. Paleogeography, Faunal Similarity and Endemism. HAROLD HEATWOLE AND FAUSTINO MACKENZIE 429

Comparative Evolution in Mimulus guttatus of the Bonneville Basin. DELBERT W. LINDSAY AND ROBERT K. VICKERY, JR 439

Effects of Hummingbird Migration on Plant Speciation in the California Flora. KAREN A. GRANT AND VERNE GRANT 457

Studies of Natural Populations of Mus. II. Polymorphism at the T Locus. MICHAEL L. PETRAS 466

Further Evidence on Sexual Isolation within Drosophila athabasca. DWIGHT D. MILLER AND NEAL J. WESTPHAL 479

Distyly, Self-incompatibility, and Evolution in Melochia. FRANKLIN W. MARTIN 493

Comparative Reproductive Biology of Montane and Piedmont Chorus Frogs. DAVID PETTUS AND GEORGE M. ANGLETON 500

Systematic Significance of Lupine Alkaloids with Particular Reference to Baptisia (Leguminosae). M. F. CRANMER AND B. L. TURNER 508

Survival Process of Linked Mutant Genes. KEN-ICHI KOJIMA AND HENRY E. SCHAEFER 518

The Probability of Fixation of a Mutant: The Two-Locus Case. W. J. EWENS 532

The Selective Value of Eye and Pigment Loss in Mexican Cave Fish. PERIHAN SADOGLU 541

Phylogenetic Analysis: Models and Estimation Procedures. L. L. CAVALLI-SFORZA AND A. W. F. EDWARDS 550

Adaptations of Respiratory Systems of Spiders. HERBERT W. LEVI 571

Phenetics of Natural Populations I. Phenetic Relationships of Insular Populations of the Side-Blotched Lizard. MICHAEL SOULE 584

The Evolution of Complex Life Cycle Phenomena: an Ecological Perspective. CONRAD A. ISTOCK 592

The Fitness of Single-Species Populations of Drosophila. J. S. F. BARKER 606

Synchronization of Sexual Reproduction of Trees within the Dry Season in Central America. DANIEL H. JANZEN 620

The Effect of Relative Frequency of Species in Competition: A Reappraisal. P. D. PUTWAIN, J. ANTONOVICS, AND D. MACHIN 638

The Loss of the Ophidian Middle Ear. D. S. BERMAN AND P. J. REGAL 641

Pollination in the Phlox Family. PETER H. RAVEN 643

Light as an Ecological Factor. JOEL W. HEDGPETH 644

Vol. 21 December 1967 No. 4

Why Does the Genotype not Congeal? JOHN R. TURNER 645

Randon Sampling and the Rate of Gene Replacement. W. J. EWENS 657

Selection and Inversion Polymorphism in Experimental Populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura Initiated with the Chromosomal Constitutions of Natural Populations. WYATT W. ANDERSON, TH. DOBZHANSKY, AND COSTAS D. KASTRITSIS 664

Mating Propensity, Chromosomal Polymorphism, and Dependent Conditions in Drosophila persimilis. ELIOT B. SPIESS AND LURETTA D. SPIESS 672

Natural Selection for Reproductive Isolation in Phlox. DONALD A. LEVIN AND HAROLD W. KERSTER 679

Behavior of Male Sunfishes (Genus Lepomis) Toward Females of Three Species. MILES H. A. KEENLEYSIDE 688

Morphological Variation in Solanum X Edinense, a Hybrid of the Common Potato. DONALD UGENT 696

Evidence for Autopolyploidy in Epilobium angustifolium (Onagraceae). THEODORE MOSQUIN 713

Intraspecific Variation in Nuclear Volume in Four Conifers. FRANCOIS MERGEN AND BART A. THIELGES 720

Geographic Variation and Climatic Adaptation in a Field Cricket (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). SINZO MASAKI 725

Embryonic Temperature Adaptations and Genetic Compatibility in Two Allopatric Populations of the Spadefoot Toad, Scaphiopus hammondi. HERBERT A. BROWN 742

The Effect of Reproductive Performance on the Domestication of the Prairie Deermouse, Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii. EDWARD PRICE 762

Comparisons of Primate Catalase Tryptic Peptides and Implications for the Study of Molecular Evolution. SANDRA L. HORNE 771

The Origin of Sorghum bicolor. II. Distribution and Domestication. J. M. J. DE WET AND J. P. HUCKABAY 787

The Evolution of Spiny Lobsters (Palinuridae): A Study of Evolution in the Marine Environment. R. W. GEORGE AND A. R. MAIN 803

Early Reptilian Evolution Re-Viewed. ALFRED SHERWOOD ROMER 821

Foramen Pseudovale and Quasi-Mammals. GILES T. MACINTYRE 834

The Measurement of Isolation on Archipelagos, and its Relation to Insular Faunal Size and Endemism. IAN W. B. THORNTON 842

Latent Neomorphs and the Evolution of Dominance. THOMAS G. GREGG 850

Support For Baker's Law-As A Rule. HERBERT G. BAKER 853

Interspecific Competition, Egg Cannibalism and the Length of Larval Instars in Tribolium. PETER S. DAWSON 857

Vol. 22 March 1968 No.1

Origin and Early Evolution of Marsupials. WILLIAM A. CLEMENS 1

The Beginnings of Primates. FREDERICK S. SZALAY 19

Monophyly or Diphyly in the Origin of Whales. LEIGH VAN VALEN 37

Chromosome Number Difference in the Amphibian Genus Bufo: The Bufo regularis Species Group. JAMES P. BOGART 42

The Population Biology of the Butterfly Euphydryas editha VI. Phenetics of the Jasper Ridge Colony, 1965-1966. LARRY G.MASON, PAUL R. EHRLICH, AND THOMAS C. EMMEL 46

Evolution of Fitness II. Correlated Effects of Natural Selection on the Productivity and Size of Experimental Populations of Drosophila serrata. FRANCISCO JOSE AYALA 55

Population Genetics in the American Tropics III. The Genetic Role of Heterozygous Individuals in Various Colombian Populations of D. melanogaster. H. F. HOENIGSBERG, L. E. CASTRO, AND L. A. GRANOBLES 66

Breakdown of Polymorphism of the Red-Backed Salamander on Long Island. ERNEST E. WILLIAMS, RICHARD HIGHTON, AND DONALD M. COOPER 76

The Selective Advantage of Temperature Tolerance Among the Progeny of Frogs with Vertebral Fusions. SANJOY DASGUPTA AND MANJIT SINGH GREWAL 87

Translocation Heterozygotes and Supernumerary Chromosomes in Wild Populations of Clarkia williamsonii. H. L. WEDBERG, HARLAN LEWIS, AND C. S. VENKATESH 93

Evolutionary Processes in Populations of Copper Tolerant Agrostis tenuis Sibth. T. McNEILLY AND A. D. BRADSHAW 108

Studies on Competition in Rice I. Competition in Mixtures of Varieties. PETER R. JENNINGS AND JOSE DE JESUS, JR 119

A Measure of Discrimination in Mating. HENRY E. SCHAFFER 125

Local Gene Dispersal in Phlox. DONALD A. LEVIN AND HAROLD W. KERSTER 130

Introgression Between Closely Related Species of Drosophila in Panama. SARAH BEDICHEK PIPKIN 140

The Composition of a Hybridizing Population of Baptisia sphaerocarpa and Baptisia leucophaea. KARL P. BAETCKE AND RALPH E. ALSTON 157

Reproductive Isolating Mechanisms in the Blue-winged Warbler-Golden-Winged Warbler Complex. MILLICENT S. FICKEN AND ROBERT W. FICKEN 166

The Role of Competition in the Evolution of Migration. GEORGE W. COX 180

Defense of Feeding Areas by Adult Herring Gulls and Intrusion by Young. WILLIAM H. DRURY, JR., AND W. JOHN SMITH 193

Pollination by Euglossine Bees. ROBERT L. DRESSLER 202

The Origin of Vertebrate Foetal Membranes. HENRYK SZARSKI 211

Geographical Anthropology. ASKELL LOVE 215

Vol. 22 June1968 No. 2

Developmental and Genetic Homeostasis in Two Species of Flour Beetles. PETER S. DAWSON 217

Variation and Selection in an Isolated Series of Populations of Lysimachia volkensii Engl. A. D. Q. AGNEW 228

Geographical Variation and Evolution in Pseudosinella hirsuta. KENNETH CHRISTIANSEN AND DAVID CULVER 237

Uniform Heterokaryotypic Superiority for Viability in a Colorado Population of Drosophila pseudoobscura. DAVID W. CRUMPACKER AND VICTOR M. SALCEDA 256

The Effect of Differential Viability on the Population Dynamics of t Alleles in the House Mouse. R. C. LEWONTIN 262

A Comparison of the Estimated Size and the "Effective Size" of Breeding Populations of the Leopard Frog, Rana pipiens. DAVID J. MERRELL 274

Seasonal Selection in the Leopard Frog, Rana pipiens. DAVID J. MERRELL AND CHARLES F. RODELL 284

The Genetics of Polymorphism in the Goose Anser caerulescens. F. COOKE AND F. G. COOCH 289

Migration and Competition in Drosophila I. Competition Between Wild and Vestigial Strains of Drosophila melanogaster in a Cage and Migration-tube Population. TAKASHI NARISE 301

Competition and Character Displacement in Two Sympatric Pine-dwelling Warblers (Dendroica, Parulidae). ROBERT W. FICKEN, MILLICENT S. FICKEN, AND DOUGLASS H. MORSE 307

Social Mimicry Character Convergence Versus Character Displacement. M. MOYNIHAN 315

Studies on Competition in Rice II. Competition in Segregation Populations. PETER R. JENNINGS AND R. M. HERRERA 332

Relation of Infection to Population Structure in Drosophila melanogaster. SUMIO MINAMORI AND KENICHI TATSUKAWA 337

The Structure of a Polyspecies Hybrid Swarm in Liatris. DONALD A. LEVIN 352

Sibling Species in Artemis (Crustacea:Branchiopoda). A. M. HALFER-CERVINI, M. PICCINELLI, T. PROSDOCIMI, AND L. BARATELLI-ZAMBRUNI 373

Incipient Unilateral Incompatibility in Leavenworthia (Cruciferae). D. G. LLOYD 382

Diploid-Tetraploid-Haploid [email protected],cles and the Origin of Variability in Dichanthium Agamospecies. J. M. J. DE WET 394

Evolutionary Relationships Through Nucleic Acid Similarities. IAN GIBSON 398

Cumulative Parental Age Effects in Drosophila subobscura. J. M. WATTIAUX 406

The Population Biology of the Butterfly, Eiiphydryas editha VII. Has E. editha Evolved a Serpentine Race? M. P. JOHNSON, A. D. KEITH, AND P. R. EHRLICH 422

"Gryphaea." Evolution, and Natural Selection. LEIGH VAN VALEN 424

Dialectics in Evolutionary Studies. EVERETT C. OLSON 426

Vol. 22 September 1968 No. 3

Adaptive Significance of Pigment Polymorphisms in Colias Butterflies. I. Variation of Melanin Pigment in Relation to Thermoregulation. WARD B. WATT 437

Selection Mechanisms Associated with Intraspecific Shell Variation in Littorina picta (Prosobranchia: Mesogastropoda). JEANNETTE WHIPPLE STRUHSAKER 459

Natural Selection For and Against a Polymorphism which Interacts with Sex. JOHN R. G. TURNER 481

Adaptation to Heterogeneous Environments. I. Variation in Heterophylly in Ranunculus flammula L. STANTON A. COOK AND MICHAEL P. JOHNSON 496

Population Studies in Predominantly Self-pollinated Species. XI. Genetic Divergence Among the Members of the Festuca microstachys Complex. R. W. ALLARD AND L. W. KANNENBERG 517

Studies on Competition in Rice. III. The Mechanism of Competition Among Phenotypes. PETER R. JENNINGS AND R. C. AQUINO 529

An Analysis of Three Hybrid Populations of Pocket Gophers (Genus Thomomys). CHARLES S. THAELER, JR 543

Metachromism or the Principle of Evolutionary Change in Mammalian Tegumentary Colors. PHILIP HERSHKOVITZ 556

Breakdown of Isolation Mechanisms in Two Species of Captive Junglefowl (Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii). G. VICTOR MOREJOHN 576

Evolutionary Status of a Relict Population of Bufo hemiophrys Cope. KENNETH R. PORTER 583

Cretaceous Dinosaur Extinction. DANIEL I. AXELROD AND HARRY P. BAILEY 595

The Genome Constitutions of Eastern North American Phlox Amphiploids. DONALD A. LEVIN 612

Genetic Structure of Populations. IV. Summer Environmental Variables and Lethal and Semilethal Frequencies in a Natural Population of Drosophila melanogaster. H. T. BAND AND P. T. IVES 633

Considerations on Speciation in Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). R. R. ASKEW 642

The Role of Heterostyly in Narcissus and Mirabilis. A. J. BATEMAN 645

Phylogenetic Systematics, Cladistics and Evolution. WALTER J. BOCK 646

Vol. 22 December 1968 No. 4

Genotype Frequency and Mating Success in the willistoni Species Group of Drosophila. LEE EHRMAN AND CLAUDINE PETIT 649

An Experimental Evaluation of Premating Isolation in the Hyla ewingi Complex (Anura : Hylidae). M. J. LITTLEJOHN AND J. J. LOFTUS-HILLS 659

Postmating Isolation in the Hyla ewingi Complex (Anura : Hylidae). G. F. WATSON AND A. A. MARTIN 664

The Frequency of Interbreeding between Two Sibling Species of Dacus (Diptera) in Wild Populations. G. W. GIBBS 667

Partial Reproductive Isolation in the Genus Partula (Gastropoda) on Moorea. JAMES MURRAY AND BRYAN CLARKE 684

Mimetic Versus Disruptive Coloration in Intergrading Populations of Limenitis arthemis and astyanax Butterflies. AUSTIN P. PLATT AND LINCOLN P. BROWER 699

Evolution and Hybridization in the Utetheisa ornatrix Complex (Lepidoptera : Arctiidae). I. Inter- and Intrapopulation Variation and its Relation to Hybridization. ROGER W. PEASE, JR 719

The Evolutionary Significance of the Speciation of Euphrasia in Europe. P. F. YEO 736

Supernumerary Chromosomes in Haplopappus validus (Rybd.) Cory. EDWIN B. SMITH 748

Island Patterns in the Solomon Islands Bird Fauna. P. J. M. GREENSLADE 751

Competitive Interactions and the Evolution of Ecological Niches as Illustrated by the Australian Honeyeater Genus Melithreptus (Meliphagidae). ALLEN KEAST 762

Adaptive Significance of Mycophagy in Stored-Product Arthropoda. R. N. SINHA 785

The Population Biology of the Butterfly, Euphydryas editha. VIII. Oviposition and its Relation to Patterns of Oviposition in Other Butterflies. PATRICIA A. LABINE 799

Size-Fecundity Relationships and their Evolutionary Implications in Five Desmognathine Salamanders. STEPHEN G. TILLEY 806

Intraspecific Combat and the Evolution of the Caprini. WILLIAM M. SCHAFFER 817

Components of Variance of Odontometric Traits in a Wild-Derived Population of Peromyscus leucopus. LARRY J. LEAMY AND ROBERT S. BADER 826

On the Evolutionary Significance of E. coli, Yeast, and Rabbit Liver sRNA Methylation. R. L. HANCOCK 835

Therian and Quasi-Mammals. RICHARD C. FOX 839

Life History of a Lizard. FREDERICK B. TURNER 841

A New Odontology. ROBERT H. DENISON 842

Progress in Primatology. RUSSELL H. TUTTLE 843

Men and Dinosaurs: The Search in Field and Laboratory. THEODORE H. EATON 844

Seed-Eaters Versus Seed Size, Number, Toxicity and Dispersal. DANIEL H. JANZEN 1

Wind Pollination in the Angiosperms: Evolutionary and Environmental Considerations. DONALD R. WHITEHEAD 28

On the Adaptive Value of Sexual Dimorphism: II. Unisexuality. FRANCESCO M. SCUDO 36

Fecundity in Primitive Plethodontid Salamanders. RICHARD C. BRUCE 50

Mating Selection in the California Oak Moth (Lepidoptera, Dioptidae). LARRY G. MASON 55

The Sensory Basis of Mate Selection in Drosophila. LEE EHRMAN 59

Mutant Genes and the Emigration Behavior of Phaenicia sericata (Diptera, Calliphoridae). P. C. CHABORA 65

Variance of Gene Frequencies. C. CLARK COCKERHAM 72

Quantitative Studies on Mating Systems. Ill. Methods for the Estimation of Male Gametophytic Selective Values and Differential Outcrossing Rates. JAMES HARDING AND C. L. TUCKER 85

Evolution of Dental Growth and Adaptation in Mammalian Carnivores. LEIGH VAN VALEN 96

The Multiple Origins of the Placental Carnivores. LEIGH VAN VALEN 118

The Vertebrate Nose, Remarks on its Structural and Functional Adaptation and Evolution. GUNNAR BERTMAR 131

Biochemical Systematics and Phylogenetic Interpretations in the Genus Aquilegia. RONALD J. TAYLOR AND DAVID CAMPBELL 153

Evolutionary Status of the Rocky Mountain Population of Wood Frogs. KENNETH R. PORTER 163

Small Islands and the Equilibrium Theory of Insular Biogeography. DONALD R. WHITEHEAD AND CLARIS E. JONES 171

Polar Ecology. JOEL W. HEDGPETH 180

Vol. 23 June 1969 No. 2

Microtus Population Biology. II. Genetic Changes at the Transferrin Locus in Fluctuating Populations of Two Vole Species. ROBERT H. TAMARIN AND CHARLES J. KREBS 183

An Analysis of Natural Selection in Laboratory Populations of Dacus (Tephritidae: Diptera). JOHN H. GEE 212

Mating Propensity, ChromosomaI Polymorphism, and Dependent Conditions in Drosophila persimilis. II. Factors Between Larvae and Between Adults. ELIOT B. SPIESS AND LURETTA D. SPIESS 225

Sympatric Host Race Formation and Speciation in Frugivorous Flies of the Genus Rhagoletis (Diptera, Tephritidae). GUY L. BUSH 237

Subspecies and Sympatry in Darwin's Finches. DAVID LACK 252

The Relation Between Mode of Reproduction and Extent of Speciation in Woody Genera of the California Chaparral. PHILIP V. WELLS 264

Heritability of some Linear Body Measurements and their ratios in the Leopard Frog Rana pipiens. DONALD K. UNDERHILL 268

LeveIs of Integration in Mammalian Dentitions: An Analysis of Correlations in Nesophontes micrus (Insectivora) and Oryzomys couesi (Rodentia). STFPHEN JAY GOULD AND ROBERT A. GARWOOD 276

Measurement of Selection using Distance Statistics in the Prehistoric Orang-utan Pongo pygmaeus palaeosumatrensis. LESLIE F. MARCUS 301

The Early Evolution of the Perissodactyla. LEONARD B. RADINSKY 308

Bergmann's Rule and Climatic Adaptation in Woodrats (Neotoma). JAMES H. BROWN AND ANTHONY K. LEE 329

An Attempt to Verify Mimetic Advantage in a Neotropical Environment. LAURENCE M. COOK, LINCOLN PIERSON BROWER, AND JOHN ALCOCK 339

Evolution of Wing Reduction in Crane Flies (Diptera: Tipulidae). GEORGE W. BYERS 346

"Isolating Mechanisms" in the Blue-Winged Warbler-GoIden-Winged Warbler Complex. LESTER L. SHORT, JR 355

Evolutionary Trends in the Heteroptera. HEBERT H. ROSS 357

Vol. 23 September 1969 No. 3

Alternative Routes to Evolutionary Success as Exhibited by African Cichlid Fishes of the Genus Tilapia and the Species Flocks of the Great Lakes. GEOFFREY FRYER and T. D. ILES 359

The Effects of Selection by Climate on the Land-snail Cepaea nemoralis (L.). RICHARD ARNOLD 370

Protein Polymorphism and Genic Heterozygosity in two European Subspecies of the House Mouse. ROBERT K. SELANDER,W. GRAINGER HUNT, and SUH Y. YANG 379

Differential Variation of Males and Females in Polistes exclamans. KATHLEEN R. EICKWORT 391

Ecotypic Variation in the Non-breeding Season in Migratory Populations: A Study of Tarsal Length in some Fringillidae. STEPHEN FRETWELL 406

The Adaptive Ecology of the Species Groups of the Genus Leptodactylus (Amphibia, Leptodactylidae). W. RONALD HEYER 421

Phenetic Similarity and Phylogenetic Relationships among Strains of Oryza perennis, Estimated by Methods of Numerical Taxonomy. HIROKO MORISHIMA 429

The Effect of Corolla Color and Outline on Interspecific Pollen Flow in Phlox. DONALD A. LEVIN 444

Chromosome Translocations in Gayophytum (Onagraceae). LEONARD B. THIEN 456

Chromosomal Evolution in Tropical Hardwoods. P. N. MEHRA and K. S. BAWA 466

Transitional Populations of Drosophila paulistorum. THEODOSIUS DOBZHANSKY, OLGA PAVLOVSKY, and LEE EHRMAN 482

Microevolution within Three Species of Hawaiian Drosophila. HAMPTON L. CARSON and JOYCE E. SATO 493

Long-term Changes in Chromosomally Polymorphic Laboratory Stocks of Drosophila pavani. DANKO BRNCIC 502

The Principle of Metachromism: A Critique. TIMOTHY E. LAWLOR 509

Deficiencies of the Synthetic Theory of Evolution. L. S. DAVITASHVILI 513

On the Use of Constancy in Estimating Conservation of Characters. CHARLES A. LONG 516

A Note on Stability and Convergence of Genetic Systems. C. CANNINGS 517

Vol. 23 December 1969 No. 4

Relative Fitness of introgressed and Parental Populations of Drosophila mojavensis and D. arizonensis. J. J. NAGLE AND L. E. METTLER 519

Experimental Studies on Hybridization and Sexual Isolation between some Aphytis Species (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). III. The Significance of Reproductive Isolation between Interspecific Hybrids and Parental Species. SUDHA V. RAO AND PAUL DEBACH 525

Selection for Reproductive Isolation between Two Populations of Maize, Zea mays L. E. PATERNIANI 534

Selective Mating and Eye Pigmentation: An Analysis of the Visual Component in the Courtship Behavior of Drosophila melanogaster. KEVIN CONNOLLY, BARRIE BURNET, AND DAVID SEWELL 548

The Dependence of Bee-Mediated Pollen and Gene Dispersal upon Plant Density. DONALD A. LEVIN AND HAROLD W. KERSTER 560

Constancy of the Pentamerous Corolla Phenotype in Natural Populations of Linanthus. CARL A. HUETHER, JR 572

Changes in Genetic Constitution of a Population of Sphaeroma rugicauda (Crustacea:Isopoda). J. A. BISHOP 589

Geographical Variation and Evolution in Pseudosinella violenta (Folsom). KENNETH CHRISTIANSEN AND DAVID CULVER 602

Gloger's Rule and Pigmentation of Collembola. E. H. RAPOPORT 622

Color-Phase in Gibbons. JACK FOODEN 627

Chromosome Evolution in the Pocket Mouse, Perognathus goldmani Osgood. JAMES L. PATTON 645

A Cytological Study on some Recently Collected Strains of Drosophila paulistorum. COSTAS D. KASTRITSIS 663

New Evidence on the Origin of the Hexaploid Oats. GIDEON LADIZINSKY 676

Hypothetical Mechanism of Speciation. A. D. BAZYKIN 685

Extinction-Origination Equilibria in Late Cenozoic Land Mammals of North America. S. DAVID WEBB 688

Origin and Evolution of Function of the Mesonychid Condylarth Feeding Mechanism. FREDERICK S. SZALAY 703

The Relationship of Evolutionary Theory to Phenetic Taxonomy. DONALD H. COLLESS 721

The Natural History of the Hymenoptera. CHARLES D. MICHENER 723

Population Genetics. LEIGH VAN VALEN 723

Biology of the California Islands. SHERWIN CARLQUIST 724

Morphologie Evolutive des Chordes. THEODORE H. EATON 725

The Structure of Competition. LEIGH VAN VALEN 735

Vol. 24 March 1970 No. 1

Plankton Evolution. JERE H. LIPPS 1

Taxonomic Diversity of IsIand Biotas. DANIEL S. SIMBERLOFF 22

Habitat Selection and Competition among Sibling Species of Satyrid Butterflies. ARTHUR M. SHAPIRO AND RING T. CARDE 48

Evolutionary Strategies in Lizard Reproduction. DONALD W. TINKLE, HENRY M. WILBUR, AND STEPHEN G. TILLEY 55

Metabolic and Morphological Adaptation to Heterogenous Environments by the Pacific Tree Toad, Hyla regilla. DAVID L. JAMESON, WILLIAM TAYLOR, AND JOHN MOUNTJOY 75

A Computor Simulation Study of the Effects of Two Behavioral Traits on the Genetic Structure of Semi-isolated Populations. MARVIN BARR SEIGER AND R. D. DIXON 90

On the Maintenance of a Shell Pattern and Behavior Polymorphism in Acmaea digitalis, a Limpet. JAMES T. GIESEL 98

Genetics of Lupinus. II. The Selective Disadvantage of the Pink Flower Color Mutant in Lupinus nanus. JAMES HARDING 120

Phenotypic Dimorphism and Populational Fitness in Phlox. DONALD A. LEVIN AND HAROLD W. KERSTER 128

The Genetic Basis of Crossing Barriers between Oryza perennis subsp. barthii and its Related Taxa. YAW-EN CHU AND HIKO-ICHI OKA 135

Natural Crossing between Apis mellifera adansonii and Apis mellifera ligustica. WARWICK ESTEVAM KERR AND DAVID BUENO 145

Additional Evidence on Sexual Isolation within Drosophila birchii. VISUT BAIMAI 149

A Biometrical Study on the Semispecies of the Drosophila paulistorum Complex. GEORGES PASTEUR 156

The B-Chromosome System of Myrmeleotettix maculatus (Thunb). IV. The Dynamics. G. M. HEWITT AND B. JOHN 168

The Interaction between the Payne Inversion and Genetic Background in the Tumorous-Head Strain of Drosophila melanogaster. DAVID T. KUHN 181

Changes of Cytoplasmic Factors During the Evolution of the Cultivated Potato. PAUL GRUN 188

Rodent DNA: Comparisons between Species. ANNE McLAREN AND P. M. B. WALKER 199

Measurements by DNA Hybridization in vitro of the Genetic Basis of Parasitic Reduction. DENNIS G. SEARCY 207

A Multivariate Morphometric Analysis of Divergence in Skull Morphology Among Geographically Contiguous and Isolated Groups of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Michigan. JOHN W. BEES 220

Cynodont Postcranial Anatomy and the "Prototherian" Level of Mammalian Organization. FARISH A. JENKINS, JR 230

Reproductive Strategies in Pithecellobium and Enterolobium- Further Information. WILLIAM H. HATHEWAY AND HERBERT G. BAKER 253

Comments on Introgression and Reproductive Isolating Mechanisms in the Blue-Winged Warbler-Golden-Winged Warbler Complex. MILLICENT S. FICKEN AND ROBERT W. FICKEN 254

Vol. 24 June 1970 No. 2

Rapid Population Differentiation in a Mosaic Environment. I. The Response of Anthoxanthum odoratum Populations to Soils. R. W. SNAYDON 257

Apomixis, Polyploidy, and Speciation in Dichanthium. J. M. J. DE WET AND J. R. HARLAN 270

The Population Biology of AnnuaI Grassland Hemiparasites. I. The Host Environment. P. R. ATSATT AND DONALD R. STRONG 278

Convergent Evolution of Mediterranean-Climate Evergreen Sclerophyll Shrubs. HAROLD A. MOONEY AND E. LLOYD DUNN 292

Character Convergence in Mexican Finches. MARTIN L. CODY AND JAMES H. BROWN 304

Sexual Selection for Size Differences in Two Species of Sandpipers. JOSEPH R. JEHL, JR. 311

Plasticity of Taxonomic Characters of the Queensland Fruit Flies Dacus tryoni and Dacus neohumeralis (Tephritidae). L. C. BIRCH AND W. G. VOGT 320

Introgression Across Isolating Barriers in Wild and Cultivated Oryza Species. YAW-EN CHU AND HIKO-ICHI OKA 344

Experimental Introgression in the Genus Phaseolus. I. Effect of Mating Systems on Interspecific Gene Flow. J. R. WALL 356

The Exploitation of Pollinators by Species and Hybrids of Phlox. DONALD A. LEVIN 367

The Gonads and Reproduction of Three Intergeneric Sunfish (Family Centrarchidae) Hybrids. JERRY L. WEST 378

Polymorphic Mimicry and Natural Selection. PETER O'DONALD AND CHRISTINE PILECKI 395

Genetic Variation in the Horseshoe Crab (Limulus polyphemus), a Phylogenetic "Relic." ROBERT K. SELANDER, SUH Y. YANG, RICHARD C. LEWONTIN, AND WALTER E. JOHNSON 402

Population Consequences of Non-Mendelian Segregation among Multiple Alleles. DANIEL L. HARTL 415

Electrophoresis of Proteins in Natural Populations of Partula. GERDA SCHWABL AND JAMES MURRAY 424

Comparative Studies of Seed Proteins of Species of Gossypium by Gel Electrophoresis. J. P. CHERRY, F. R. H. KATTERMAN, AND J. E. ENDRIZZI 431

Ornithischian Dinosaurs and the Origin of Birds. PETER M. GALTON 448

Analysis of Simple Cave Communities. I. Caves as Islands. DAVID C. CULVER 463

Stage of Taxon Cycle and Distribution of Birds on Jamaica, Greater Antilles. ROBERT E. RICKLEFS 475

A Possible Evolutionary Basis for Aesthetic Appreciation in Men and Apes. J. SHERMAN BLEAKNEY 477

On the Evolutionary State of Some Reproductive Organs in the Mammalian Order Lagomorpha. CHARLES A. LONG 479

Essais sur L'Evolution. ERNST MAYR 480

Morphology and Systematics of the Bryozoan Genus Metrarabdotos. THOMAS J. M. SCHOPF 481

An Introduction to Mathematical Ecology. R. LEVINS 482

Vol. 24 September 1970 No. 3

Population Fitness of Geographic Strains of Drosophila serrata as Measured by Interspecific Competition. FRANCISCO J. AYALA 483

Quantitative Variation and Chromosomal Arrangements in a Population of Drosophila persimilis from the Redwoods. ELIOT B. SPIESS AND RICHARD N. SHERWIN 495

Further Genetic Studies of the South Amherst Population of Drosophila melanogaster. PHILIP T. IVES 507

The Interior Semispecies of Drosophila paulistorum. S. PEREZ-SALAS, R. C. RICHMOND, O. PAVLOVSKY, C. D. KASTRITSIS, L. EHRMAN, AND TH. DOBZHANSKY 519

Studies on Natural Populations of Drosophila XI. Fitness Components and Competition between Drosophila funebris and D. virilis. A. O. TANTAWY AND H. M. EL-WAKIL 528

Competition between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans on Media Supplemented with Saccharomyces and Schizosaccharomyces. M. R. EL-HELW AND A. M. M. ALI 531

Analysis of a General Population Genetic Model of Meiotic Drive. D. L. HARTL 538

A Model for the Evolution of Pinniped Polygyny.. GEORGE A. BARTHOLOMEW 546

The Evolutionary Dynamics of the Desert Woodrat, Neotoma lepida. MILTON LIEBERMAN AND DIANA LIEBERMAN 560

Self-fertility in Maritime and Zinc Mine Populations of Armeria maritima (Mill.) Willd. C. LEFEBVRE 571

The Evolution of Three Diploid Species of Oenothera Subgenus Anogra (Onagraceae). WILLIAM M. KLEIN 578

The Population Biology of Annual Grassland Hemiparasites. II. Reproductive Patterns in Orthocarpus. P. R. ATSATT 598

Developmental Instability in Species and Hybrids of Liatris. DONALD A. LEVIN 613

Polymorphism and Egg-size in the Sheep Nematode, Haemonchus contortus. LEO F. LEJAMBRE, I,. H. RACTLIFFE, J. H. WHITLOCK, AND H. D. CROFTON 625

Potential Extinction through Competition between Two Species of Terrestrial Salamanders. ROBERT G. JAEGER 632

Parallel Evolution in the Adaptive Ecology of Leptodactylid Frogs of South America and Australia. A. A. MARTIN 643

Metachromism Like It Is. PHILIP HERSHKOVITZ 644

Vol. 24 December 1970 No. 4

Genetic Variability in Natural Populations of Softchess (Bromus mollis L.). S. K. JAIN, D. R. MARSHALL, AND K. WU 649

The Distribution of Gene Frequencies in Polymorphic Populations of Drosophila melanogaster. B. SHORROCKS 660

Cytogenetic Relationships of Key Diploid Members of the Mimulus glabratus Complex (Scrophulariaceae). WILLIAM TAI AND ROBERT K. VICKERY, JR 670

Host Specificity of Fig Wasps (Agaonidae). WILLIAM RAMIREZ B. 680

Reproductive Isolation in Stegomyia Mosquitoes. II. Hybrid Breakdown Between Aedes aegypti and A. mascarensis. W. K. HARTBERG AND G. B. CRAIG, JR 692

Microevolutionary Sequences as a Fundamental Concept in Macroevolutionary Models. WALTER J. BOCK 704

Respiration in Early Tetrapods-The Frog is a Red Herring. CARL GANS 723

Extrachromosomal Element Delta in Drosophila melanogaster. IV. Variation and Persistence of Delta-Associating Second Chromosomes in a Natural Population. Sumio MINAMORI, NOBUKO FUJIOKA, KAZUKO ITO, AND MAKOTO IKEBUCHI 735

A New Pentaploid Mexican Wild Potato and its Progeny. G. E. MARKS AND H. MONTELONGO-ESCOBEDO 745

Cytoplasmic Sterilities that Separate the Cultivated Potato from its Putative Diploid Ancestors. PAUL GRUN 750

Evolution of Pair Cooperation in a Tropical Hummingbird. LARRY L. WOLF AND F. GARY STILES 759

The Reproductive Behavior and the Nature of Sexual Selection in Scatophaga stercoraria L. (Diptera: Scatophagidae). VII. The Origin and Evolution of the Passive Phase. G. A. PARKER 774

Distribution, Adaptation, and Probable Origin of an All-Female Form of Poeciliopsis (Pisces: Poeciliidae) in Northwestern Mexico. WILLIAM S. MOORE, ROBERT RUSH MILLER, AND R. JACK SCHULTZ 789

Measurements by DNA Renaturation of the Genetic Basis of Parasitic Reduction. DENNIS G. SEARCY AND AUSTIN J. MACINNIS 796

The Genetics of Dacus oleae. IV. Relation Between Adult Esterase Genotypes and Survival to Organophosphate Insecticides. S. TSAKAS AND C. B. KRIMBAS 807

Ctyogenetics, Distribution, and Amphitropical Affinities of South American Camissonia (Onagraceae). D. M. MOORE AND P. H. RAVEN 816

Comment on: "A Possible Evolutionary Basis for Aesthetic Appreciation in Men and Apes." S. L. WASHBURN 824

On the Relationship Between Variation and Conservatism. JAMES S. FARRIS 825

Evolution of Dioecy from Gynodioecy. M. D. ROSS 827

On Ecotypic Variation in Birds. RICHARD C. BANKS 829

Vol. 25 March 1971 No. 1

Evolution in the House Sparrow. II. Adaptive Differentiation in North American Populations. RicHARD F. JOHNSTON AND ROBERT K. SELANDER 1

A Biometric Analysis of Populations of Poa annua L. W. M. ELLIS, B. T. 0. LEE, AND D. M. CALDER 29

Multiple Character Analysis and Chromosome Studies in the Tripsacum lanceolatum Complex. R. V. TANTRAVAHI 38

A Statistical Analysis of Geographic Variation in the Pupae of Three Species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). WILLIAM R. ATCHLEY 51

Sound Production During Courtship in Six Species of Sunfish (Centrarchidae). JERRY W. GERALD 75

Geographic and Reproductive Isolation in Atlantic and Pacific Populations of Panamanian Bathygobius, ROBERTA W. RUBINOFF AND IRA RUBINOFF 88

A Reappraisal of Mating Call Differentiation in Hyla cadaverina (= Hyla californiae) and Hyla regilla. M. J. LITTLEJOHN 98

Unorthodoxies in Reptilian Phylogeny. ALFRED SHERWOOD ROMER 103

Pollinator Flight Directionality and its Effect on Pollen Flow. DONALD A. LEVIN, HAROLD W. KERSTER, AND MARIANNE NIEDZLEK 113

Fertility and Fitness of XO Males in Drosophila I. Qualitative Study. ROBERT A. VOELKER AND KEN-ICHI KOJIMA 119

Geography of the Sibling Species Related to Drosophila willistoni, and of the Semispecies of the Drosophila paulistorum Complex. B. SPASSKY, R. C. RICHMOND, S. PEREZ-SALAS, O. PAVLOVSKY, C. A. MOURAO, A. S. HUNTER, H. HOENIGSBERG, TH. DOBZHANSKY, AND F. J. AYALA129

Dynamics of Clonal Microspecies in Cholla Cactus. VERNE GRANT AND KAREN A. GRANT 144

The Allopatric Model and Phylogeny in Paleozoic Invertebrates. NILES ELDREDGE 156

The Ecological Relationship of the Salamander Ambystoma laterale to its All-female, Gynogenetic Associate. HENRY M. WILBUR 168

Estimation of Relative Viability and Fecundity of Color Polymorphisms in Anurans. DAVID L. JAMESON AND SUE PEQUQNAT 180

Hybridization Between Anopheles crucians and Anopheles bradlevi. R. D. KREUTZER AND J. B. KITZMILLER 195

Coadaptation of the Payne Inversion with a Previously Unrelated Genetic Background in Drosophila melanogaster. DAVID T. KUHN 207

The Relationship Between Mating Speed and Wing Length in Drosophila subobscura. MARIA MONCLUS AND ANTONIO PREVOSTI 214

Squash and Gourd Bees (Peponapis, Xenoglossa) and the Origin of the Cultivated Cucurbita. PAUL D. HURD, JR., E. GORTON LINSLEY, AND THOMAS W. WHITAKER 218

Organophyletic Trends in Several Micromorphological Floral Traits in the Hexaploid Cultivated Oats (Avena). BERNARD R. BAUM 235

Whittaker's Five Kingdoms of Organisms: Minor Revisions Suggested by Considerations of the Origin of Mitosis. LYNN MARGULIS 242

On Reversions to Former Ancestral Conditions in Megadrile Oligochaetes. G. E. GATES 246

Vol. 25 June 1971 No. 2

The Operation of Selection in Situations of Interspecific Competition. BRUCE R. LEVIN 249

The Components of Sexual Selection. A. FAUGERES, C. PETIT, AND E. THIBOUT 265

A New Approach to Measuring Genetic Similarity. PHILIP W. HEDRICK 276

Is There a Constant Fitness Value for a Given Genotype? No! KEN-ICHI KOJIMA 281

Gene Frequencies in a Marine Ectoproct: A Cline in Natural Populations Related to Sea Temperature. TIIOMAS J. M. SCHOPF AND JAMES L. GOOCH 286

Industrial Melanism in the Two-Spot Ladybird and Smoke Abatement. E. R. CREED 290

Further Studies of the Etiology of Hybrid Male Sterility in Drosophila paulistorum. DAVID L. WILLIAMSON AND LEE EHRMAN 294

The Reproductive System of Jepsonia heterandra. ROBERT ORNDUFF 300

Evolutionary Relationships in the Outcrossing Diploid Annual Species of Stephanomeria (Compositae). L. D. GOTTLIEB 312

The Evolution of Reproductive Isolation in Clarkia, Section Myxocarpa. ERNEST SMALL 330

Cytogenetic Studies in Clarkia, Section Primigenia. V. Interspecific Hybridization Between C. amoena huntiana and C. lassenensis. FATHI ABDEL-HAMEED 347

The Dynamics of Plant Domestication: Cultivation Experiments with Oryza perennis and its Hybrid with O. sativa. HIKO-ICHI OKA AND HIROKO MORISHIMA 356

The Effects of Predation on Artificial Mimetic Polymorphisms with Perfect and Imperfect Mimics at Varying Frequencies. CHRISTINE PILECKI AND PETER O'DONALD 365

Phenological Relationships of Some Aculeate Hymenoptera, their Dipteran Mimics, and Insectivorous Birds. G. P. WALDBAUER AND JOSEPH K. SHELDON 371

Evolution of Food-Plant Preference in the Butterfly Euphydras editha. MICHAEL C. SINGER 383

Evolution in Constant and Fluctuating Environments: Thermal Tolerances of Desert Pupfish (Cyprinodon). JAMES H. BROWN AND C. ROBERT FELDMETH 390

Levels of Genetic Compatibility of Rana areolata with Southwestern Members of the Rana pipiens Complex (Anura: Ranidae). HECTOR S. CUELLAR 399

The Effects of Crowding on Chromosomal Polymorphism of Drosophila pavani. MYRIAM BUDNIK, DANKO BRNCIC, AND SUSI KOREF-SANTIBANEZ 410

Adaptive Zones and the Orders of Mammals. LEIGH VAN VALEN 420

Tracheal Dead Space in the Respiration of Birds. DAVID S. HINDS AND WILLIAM A. CALDER 429

Classification and Biology. GARETH J. NELSON 441

The Yahoos Ride Again. R. C. LEWONTIN 442

Vol. 25 September 1971 No. 3

Experimental Analysis of Relative Fitness in Transferrin Genotypes of Microtos ochrogaster. MICHAEL S. GAINES, JUDITH H. MYERS AND CHARLES J. KREBS 443

Lethal Alleles near Locus T in House Mouse Populations on the Jutland Peninsula, Denmark. L. C. DUNN AND DOROTHEA BENNETT 451

The Genetics of Dacus oleae. V. Changes of Esterase Polymorphism in a Natural Population Following Insecticide Control-Selection or Drift? COSTAS B. KRIMBAS AND SPYROS TSAKAS 454

Mating Propensity of Gene Arrangement Carriers from a Redwoods Population of Drosophila persimilis. ELIOT B. SPIESS, RICHARD N. SHERWIN AND TINA YACHER 461

Two Thousand Generations of Hyhridisation in a Heliconius Butterfly. JOHN R. G. TURNER 471

The Genetics of Polymorphism in the Ross' Goose (Anser rossi). F. COOKE AND J. P. RYDER 483

The Relations between Population Structure and Rate of Inbreeding. JAMES T. GIESEL 491

Parallelism and Convergence in the Evolution of Size and Shape in Holarctic Hyla. DAVID L. JAMESON AND ROLLIN C. RICHMOND 497

A Developmental Basis for Differential Tooth Reduction during Hominid Evolution. J. A. SOFAER, H. L. BAILIT, AND C. J. MACLEAN 509

An Example of Parallelism in Carnivore Brain Evolution. LEONARD RADINSKY 518

Toward the Origin of Artiodactyls. LEIGH VAN VALEN 523

Genetic Interpretation of Regressive Evolutionary Processes: Studies on Hybrid Eyes of Two Astyanax Cave Population (Characidae, Pisces). HORST WILKENS 530

Reversible Tetraploidy as an Evolutionary Mechanism. J. M. J. DE WET 545

The Monoecious and Dioecious Conditions in Sagittaria latifolia L. (Alismataceae). JEAN W. WOOTEN 549

Phenetic Analysis and the Phylogeny of the Diploid Species of Gossypium L. (Malvaceae). PAUL A. FRYXELL 554

A Comparative Study of the Cause and Significance of Morphological Variation in Adults and Pupae of Culicoides: A Factor Analysis and Multiple Regression Study. WILLIAM R. ATCHLEY 563

Changes in Microgeographic Variation Patterns of Pemphigus populitransversus over a Six-year Span. ROBERT R. SOKAL, NORMAN N. HERYFORD AND JOHN R. L. KISHPAUGH 584

Vol. 25 December 1971 No. 4

Group Selection and the Evolution of Dispersal. LEIGH VAN VALEN 591

Variation in the Tarsus Length of Birds in Island and Mainland Regions. P. R. GRANT 599

Phyletic Divergence Dates of Hominoid Primates: A Comparison of Fossil and Molecular Data. THOMAS UZZELL AND DAVID PILBEAM 615

Dinosaur Physiology and the Origin of Mammals. ROBERT T. BAKKER 636

Mode of Pollination and Floral Sexuality in Thalictrum. STUART M. KAPLAN AND DAVID L. MULCAHY 659

Anthocyanidins of Some Impatiens Species. SARAH CLEVENGER 669

An Example of Parallel Evolution in Epilobium (Onagraceae). THEODORE MOSQUIN AND ERNEST SMALL 678

Relationships between Weedy and Cultivated Forms in Some Species of Chili Peppers (Genus Capsicum). BARBARA PICKERSGILL 683

Demonstration of the Selective Advantage of Mimetic Limenitis Butterflies Presented to Caged Avian Predators. AUSTIN P. PLATT, RAYMOND P. COPPINGER, AND LINCOLN P. BROWER 692

Genetic Changes in Fluctuating Vole Populations. MICHAEL S. GAINES AND CHARLES J. KREBS 702

Cytogenetics of the South American Akodont Rodents (Cricetidae). I. A Progress Report of Argentinian and Venezuelan Forms. N. O. BIANCHI, O. A. REIG, O. J. MOLINA, AND F. N. DULOUT 724

Origin of Eukaryotic Cells. PETER H. RAVEN 737

Pleistocene and Recent Environments of the Central Great Plains. RONALD PEARSON 738

On the Phylogeny and the Ontogeny of the Human Larynx: A Morphological and Functional Study. E. LLOYD DU BRUL 739

Hylid Frogs of Middle America. DAVID B. WAKE 740

Vol. 26 March 1972 No. 1

Evolutionary Genetics of Cave-Dwelling Fishes of the Genus Astyanax. JOHN C. AVISE AND ROBERT K. SELANDER 1

Herman Bumpus and Natural Selection in the House Sparrow Passer domesticus. RICHARD F. JOHNSTON, DAVID M. NILES, AND SIEVERT A. ROHWER 20

Geographic Variation and Environmental Selection in Gasterosteus aculeatus L. in the Pacific Northwest, America. D. W. HAGEN AND L. G. GILBERTSON 32

The Breakdown of Trimorphic Incompatibility in Oxalis Section Corniculatae. ROBERT ORNDUFF 52

Evidence against Genetic Self-Incompatibility in the Homosporous Fern Pteridium aquilinum. EDWARD J. KLEKOWSKI, JR 66

The Origin of the Allotetraploid Clarkia gracilis. FATHI ABDEL-HAMEED AND RICHARD SNOW 74

Selective Attraction of Male Euglossine Bees to Orchid Floral Fragrances and Its Importance in Long Distance Pollen Flow. NORRIS H. WILLIAMS AND CALAWAY H. DODSON 84

Mate Selection and Balanced Polymorphism in the Tropical Nymphalid Butterfly, Anartia fatima. THOMAS C. EMMEL 96

Courtship Behavior in the Semispecies of the Superspecies Drosophila paulistorum. SUSI KOREF-SANTIBANEZ 108

Further Evidence of Genetic and Increased Developmental Homeostasis in a Drosophila melanogaster Natural Population during a Minor Climatic Shift. H. T. BAND 116

Distribution Patterns of Priochirus Species (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in the Solomon Islands. P. J. M. GREENSLADE 130

Isozymic Evidence Bearing on the Origin of Nicotiana tabacum L. S. J. SHEEN 143

Breeding System and Genetic Variation in Leavenworthia, OTTO T. SOLBRIG 155

Vol. 26 June 1972 No. 2

Rapid Evolution of Competitive Ability in Larval Mxtures of the Housefly. EDWIN H. BRYANT AND CARL R. TURNER 161

Recognition by Drosophila melanogaster of individuals from Other Strains or Cultures: Support for the Role of Olfactory Cues in Selective Mating? D. A. HAY 171

Genetic Distance and Evolutionary Relationships in the Drosophila obscura Group. SEPPO LAKOVAARA, ANSSI SAURA, AND CATHERINE T. FALK 177

Evolutionary Strategies in Life Table Characteristics among Feral and Urban Strains of Aedes aegypti (L.). THEODORE J. CROVELLO AND CARL S. HACKER 185

Karyotypic Evolution of Bees and Corresponding Taxonomic Implications. WARWICK ESTEVAM KERR AND ZULEICE VIANA DA SILVEIRA 197

Evolution in the Staphylinid Genus Priochirus (Coleoptera). P. J. M. GREENSLADE 203

Genetic and Phenotypic Differentiation and Geographic Distance in Four Species of Lepidoptera. CHARLES G. OLIVER 221

Phlox and Colias: The Efficiency of a Pollination System. DONALD A. LEVIN AND DENIS E. BERUBE 242

Pollen Exchange as a Function of Species Proximity in Phlox. DONALD A. LEVIN 251

A Pocket of Variability in Pinus rigida. F. THOMAS LEDIG AND JOHN H. FRYER 259

Chara vulgaris and C. contraria: Patterns of Reproductive Isolation for Two Cosmopolitan Species Complexes. MICHAEL C. GRANT AND VERNON W. PROCTOR 267

Discrimination Behavior and Hybridization of the Blue-Winged and Golden-Winged Warblers. FRANK B. GILL AND BERTRAM G. MURRAY, JR 282

Egg-Production, Polyploidization and Evolution in a Diploid All-Female Fish of the Genus Poeciliopsis. MICHAEL C. CIMINO 294

A Paternal Role for Bulls of the Galapagos Islands Sea Lion. GEORGE W. BARLOW 307

Pollination Study in a Natural Population of Mimulus guttatus. Y. T. KIANG 308

Prehistoric Agriculture. MARY W. HELMS 311

Vol. 26 September 1972 No. 3

Effects of Population Density on the Frequency-dependent Selection in the Esterase-6 Locus of Drosophila melanogaster. KEN-ICHI KOJIMA AND SHIU LAN HUANG 313

Maintenance of Chromosomal Polymorphism in a Population of Drosophila pseudoobscura: Viability under Crowded and Uncrowded Conditions. MARVIN DRUGER AND RICHARD P. NICKERSON 322

Courtship Interaction in the Semispecies of Drosophila paulistorum. SUSI KOREF-SANTIBANEZ 326

Selection and Stability in the Complex Polymorphism of Moraba scurra. JOHN R. G. TURNER 334

Random vs. Non-random Mating in the Sulfur Butterflies, Colias eurytheme and Colias philodice (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). ORLEY R. TAYLOR, JR 344

Evolution in Mixed Populations of Tribolium. PETER S. DAWSON 357

Competition between Metal Tolerant and Normal Plant Populations on Normal Soil. SHEILA C. A. COOK, CLAUDE LEFEBVRE, AND THOMAS McNEILLY 366

Pollination Biology of Nemophila menziesii (Hydrophyllaceae) with Comments on the Evolution of OligoIectic Bees. ROBERT WILLIAM CRUDEN 373

Rapid Population Differentiation in a Mosaic Environment. II. Morphological Variation in Anthoxanthum odoratum. R. W. SNAYDON AND M. S. DAVIES 390

The Reproductive Biology of Rhus integrifolia and Rhus ovata (Anacardiaceae). DAVID A. YOUNG 406

Fertile Glumes in Primitive Cultivated Wheats. G. M. WRIGHT 415

DNA Content in Relation to Phylogeny of Selected Boreal Forest Plants. M. H. EL-LAKANY AND JANET R. DUGLE 427

Evolutionary Implications of Zahnreihen. ROBERT DEMAR 435

Numbers of Bird Species on the California Islands. DENNIS M. POWER 451

The Evolution of the Use of Tools by Feeding Animals. JOHN ALCOCK 464

Some Functional Aspects of Molar Evolution. P. M. BUTLER 474

Primate Societies: Group Techniques of Ecological Adaptation. BENJAMIN B. BECK 484

Theoretical Aspects of Population Genetics. JACK LESTER KING 485

Vertebrate Paleozoology. DAVID BARDACK 487

Vol. 26 December 1972 No. 4

The Effects of Genetic Background on the Ecology of Selection in Tribolium Populations. ROBERT R. SOKAL AND KOICHI FUJII 489

Factors Responsible for a Change in Interspecific Competitive Ability in Drosophila. PHILIP W. HEDRICK 513

Genetic Variability and Similarity in the Anolis Lizards of Bimini. T. PRESTON WEBSTER, ROBERT K. SELANDER, AND SUH Y. YANG 523

Genetic Similarities and Evolutionary Relationships among the Semispecies of Drosophila paulistorum. ROLLIN C. RICHMOND 536

Genetic Variability in the Deep Sea: Relation to Environmental Variability. JAMES L. GOOCH AND THOMAS J. M. SCHOPF 545

Chromosomal Polymorphism in Drosophila pseudoobscura Used for Diagnosis of Geographic Origin. JEFFREY R. POWELL, HOWARD LEVENE, AND THEODOSIUS DOBZHANSKY 553

Fertility and Fitness of XO Males in Drosophila. II. Quantitative Analysis. ROBERT A. VOELKER AND KEN-ICHI KOJIMA 560

Patterns of Geographic Variation in Karyotype in the Pocket Gopher, Thomomys bottae (Eydoux and Gervais). JAMES L. PATTON 574

Climatic Adaptation and Photoperiodic Response in the Band-legged Ground Cricket. SINZO MASAKI 587

On the Biological Improbability of Zahnreihen as Embryological Units. J. W. OSBORN 601

A Review of Some Current Concepts of the Functional Evolution of the Ear in Terrestrial Vertebrates. GEOFFREY A. MANLEY 608

Mechanics and the Evolution of the Synapsid jaw. ROBERT DEMAR AND HERBERT R. BARGHUSEN 622

Evolution of Mastication in the Elephantidae. VINCENT J. MAGLIO 638

Evolution of the Merycoidodont Masticatory Apparatus (Mammalia, Artiodactyla). WALTER STALKER GREAVES 659

Competition for Pollinator Service: A Stimulus for the Evolution of Autogamy. DONALD A. LEVIN 668

Phyletic Divergence Dates of Hominoid Primates. DWIGHT W. READ AND PETE LESTREL 669

Flaveria campestris (Asteraceae): A Case of Polyhaploidy or Relic Ancestral Diploidy? LORAN C. ANDERSON 671

Why Are Bird-Visited Flowers Predominantly Red? PETER H. RAVEN 674

Science and Philosophy in the Soviet Union. EVERETT C. OLSON 675

Dental Morphology and Evolution. J. W. OSBORN 676

Fossils, A Study in Evolution. PETER P. VAUGHN 677

Vol. 27 March 1973 No. 1

An Explanation for Cope's Rule. STEVEN M. STANLEY 1

Body Size and Numbers of Plants and Animals. LEIGH VAN VALEN 27

The Evolution of Some Morphological Characters of the Upper Cheek Teeth of the Fossil Horses. ANN FORSTEN 36

Significance of Sympatry to Behavior and Evolution of Great Plains Meadowlarks. SIEVERT A. ROHWER 44

The Phenetics and Ecology of a Narrow Hybrid Zone. JAMES F. JACKSON 58

Major Ecological and Geographic Patterns in the Evolution of Colubroid Snakes. GEORGE B. RABB AND HYMEN MARX 69

Evolution of the Predator Isocline. MICHAEL L. ROSENZWEIG 84

The Substitutional Load and Mutational Load in a Finite Population. TAKEO MARUYAMA 95

Population Genetics of Marine Pelecypods. II. Genetic Differences in Microhabitats of Modiolus demissus. RICHARD K. KOEHN, FRANCIS J. TURANO, AND JEFFRY B. MITTON 100

Occurrence of Successful Multiple Insemination of Females in Natural Populations of Deer Mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). D. ALAN BIRDSALL AND DAVID NASH 106

Changing Reproductive Rates and Population Cycles in Lemmings and Voles. WILLIAM M. SCHAFFER AND ROBERT H. TAMARIN 111

Maintenance of Chromosomal Polymorphism in a Population of Drosophila pseudoobscura. II. Fecundity, Longevity, Viability and Competitive Fitness. RICHARD P. NICKERSON AND MARVIN DRUGER 125

Evolution of Litter-Size in the Pika, Ochotona princeps (Richardson). JOHN S. MILLAR 134

Assortative Pollination for Stature in Lythrum salicaria. DONALD A. LEVIN AND HAROLD W. KERSTER 144

Polyploidy in Fungi. JACK D. ROGERS 153

A Non-genetic "Polymorphism" in Anartia fatima (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). ORLEY R. TAYLOR, JR 161

On the Nature of the Polymorphism and Mate Selection Phenomena in Anartia fatima (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). THOMAS C. EMMEL 164

Dinosaurs as Reptiles. ALAN FEDUCCIA 166

Dinosaur Physiology: A Critique. ALBERT F. BENNETT AND BONNIE DALZELL 170

Some Russian Viewpoints. EVERETT C. OLSON 175

Vol. 27 June 1973 No. 2

Genetic Variation in Tridacna maxima, an Ecological Analog of Some Unsuccessful Evolutionary Lineages. FRANCISCO J. AYALA, DENNIS HEDGECOCK, GARY S. ZUMWALT, AND JAMES W. VALENTINE 177

Genetic Differentiation without Isolation in the American Eel, Anguilla rostrata. GEORGE C. WILLIAMS, RICHARD K. KOEHN, AND JEFFRY B. MITTON 192

Enzyme Differentiation and Phylogeny in Clarkia franciscana, C. rubicunda and C. amoena. L. D. GOTTLIEB 205

Studies of Linkage in Populations. VI. Periodic Selection for X-chromosome Gene Arrangement Combinations. MAX LEVITAN 215

Hybridization of KaryotypicaIly Differentiated Populations in the Sceloporus grammicus Complex (Iguanidae). WILLIAM P. HALL AND ROBERT K. SELANDER 226

ChromosomaI Evolution in Haplopappus gracilis: a Centric Transposition Race. R. C. JACKSON 243

Preferential Mating and the Maintenance of the Sex-limited Dimorphism in Papilio glaucus: Evidence from Laboratory Matings. MALCOLM P. LEVIN 257

Propensity for Multiple Mating in Drosophila melanogaster Females. P. A. FUERST, W. W. PENDLEBURY AND J. F. KIDWELL 265

Predator Polymorphism and Apostatic Selection. DENNIS R. PAULSON 269

Genetic Divergence in Body Size among Experimental Populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura Kept at Different Temperatures. WYATT W. ANDERSON 278

Weather, Climate, and the External Morphology of Pacific Tree Toads. DAVID L. JAMESON, JAMES P. MACKEY AND MARGARET ANDERSON 285

Intra- and Interspecies Variations in Gypidulid Brachiopods. JOSEPH H. MAKURATH AND E. J. ANDERSON 303

Comparative Evolution of Cereals. JACK R. HARLAN, J. M. J. DE WET, AND E. GLEN PRICE 311

The Numbers of Species of Hummingbirds in the West Indies. DAVID LACK 326

Chance, Habitat and Dispersal in the Distribution of Birds in the West Indies. JOHN TERBORGH 338

The Functional and Evolutionary Biology of Primates. DWIGHT W. READ 350

Populations in a Seasonal Environment. MARTIN L. CODY 351

Vol. 27 September 1973 No. 3

Adaptive Color Polymorphism in Cricket Frogs. EVIATAR NEVO 353

Dewlap Color Variation and Electrophoretically Detected Sibling Species in a Haitian Lizard, Anolis brevirostris. T. PRESTON WEBSTER AND JOHN M. BURNS 368

Chromosomal, Electrophoretic, and Breeding Studies of Selected Populations of Deer Mice (Peromyscus tnaniculatus) and Black-eared Mice (P. melanotis). J. HOYT BOWERS,


Environmental Control of Seasonal Variation in the Butterfly Colias eurytheme. I. Adaptive Aspects of a Photoperiodic Response. RICHARD J. H HOFFMANN 387

A Further Analysis of Bumpus' Data: The Intensity of Natural Selection. PETER O'DONALD 398

Adaptive Variation in Body Size and Skeletal Proportions of Horned Larks of the Southwestern United States. DAVID M. NILES 405

A Model Relating Developmental Interaction and Differential Evolutionary Reduction of Tooth Size. J. A. SOFAER 427

Effects of Thirty Years Hybridization on the Toads Bufo americanus and Bufo woodhousii fowleri at Bloomington, Indiana. J. MICHAEL JONES 435

Barriers to Hybridization Between the House Fly, Musca domestica L., and the Face Fly, M. autumnalis De Geer (Diptera: Muscidae). E. TOBIN AND J. G. STOFFOLANO, JR. 449

On the Ethological Differentiation of Drosophila ananassae and Drosophila pallidosa in Samoa. DAVID G. FUTCH 456

Fertility Genes in Natural Populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Ill. Superiority of Inversion Heterozygotes. TAKAO K. WATANABE AND TAISHU WATANABE 468

Studies of Linkage in Populations. VII. Temporal Variation and X-Chromosomat Linkage Disequilibriums. MAX LEVITAN 476

Adaptive Chromosomal Polymorphism in Drosophila melanica. JOHN TONZETICH AND CALVIN L. WARD 486

Interaction Effects of Temperature and Humidity on Pupal Survival in Drosophila melanica. JOHN TONZETICH AND CALVIN L. WARD 495

Clarkia rubicunda: A Model of Plant Evolution in Semiarid Regions. BRUCE BARTHOLOMEW, L. C. EATON, AND PETER H. RAVEN 505

Extrapolation of the Predomesticaled Hexaploid Cultivated Oats. B. R. BAUM 518

Phylogenetic Significance of Pollen Nuclear Number in the Euphorbiaceae. GRADY L. WEBSTER AND EARLENE A. RUPERT 524

The Age Structure of a Hybrid Swarm in Liatris (Compositae). DONALD A. LEVIN 532

Evolutionary Biology Vol. 5. WILLIAM L. BLOOM 535

Announcements 367, 404, 467

Vol. 27 December 1973 No. 4

Adaptive Significance of Pigment Polymorphisms in Colias Butterflies. III. Progress in the Study of the "Alba" Variant. WARD B. WATT 537

Sexual Vigor and Sexual Selection in Drosophila melanogaster. A. ELENS, J. VAN DEN HAUTE, AND J. DELCOUR 549

Frequency-Dependent Selection at the Payne Inversion in Drosophila melanogaster. R. NASSAR, H. J. MUHS AND R. D. COOK 558

Active Dispersal and Passive Transport in Drosophila. THEODOSIUS DOBZHANSKY 565

Demography and Genetics in Colonizing Populations of Blue Grouse (Dendragapus obscurus). J. A. REDFIELD 576

Genetic Variation in Side-Blotched Lizards on Islands in the Gulf of California. MICHAEL SOULE AND SUH YUNG YANG 593

Genic Differentiation Associated with the Early Stages of Speciation in the Mulleri Subgroup of Drosophila. E. ZOUROS 601

Genetic Variation in Lycopodium lucidulum: A Phylogenetic Relic. DONALD A. LEVIN AND WILLIAM L. CREPET 622

Cytoplasmic Sterilities that Separate the Group Tuberosum Cultivated Potato from its Putative Tetraploid Ancestor. PAUL GRUN 633

Intergenomic Mapping of Maize, Teosinte and Tripsacum. WALTON C. GALINAT 644

The Breeding System and Variation in Populations of Poa annua L. W. M. ELLIS 656

Breeding Systems in Cortaderia (Gramineae). H. E. CONNOR 663

Chiasma Frequency Evidence on the Evolution of Autogamy in Litmnanthes floccosa (Limnanthaceae). MARY T. KALIN ARROYO 679

Toward a Predictive Cave Biogeography: The Greenbrier Valley as a Case Study. DAVID CULVER, JOHN R. HOLSINGER, AND ROGER BAROODY 689

Respiration in Metazoan Evolution. RICHARD COWEN 696

The Absence of t Alleles in Feral Populations of House Mice. JUDITH H. MYERS 702

AtIas of Palaeobiogeography. EVERETT C. OLSON 705

Vol. 28 March 1974 No. 1

Genetic Variation, Selection and Speciation in Thomomys talpoides Pocket Gophers. EVIATAR NEVO, YUNG J. KIM, CHARLES R. SHAW AND CHARLES S. THAELER, JR 1

Genetic and Reproductive Differentiation of the Subspecies, Drosophila equinoxialis caribbensis. FRANCISCO J. AYALA, MARTIN L. TRACY, LORRAINE G. BARR AND JOAN G. EHRENFELD 24

Biochemical Genetics of Sunfish. I. Geographic Variation and Subspecific Intergradation in the Bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus. JOHN C. AVISE AND MICHAEL H. SMITH 42

Rigid and Flexible Chromosomal Polymorphisms in Neighboring Populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura. DAVID W. CRUMPACKER AND JAMES S. WILLIAMS 57

Epistatic Gene Interaction, Crossing Over, and Linked and Unlinked Inversions in Drosophila subobscura. DIETHER SPERLICH AND HEIDE FEUERBACH-MRAVLAG 67

Strategies for Egg Production. PETER W. PRICE 76

Breeding Systems of Tree Species of a Lowland Tropical Community. K. S. BAWA 85

The Reproductive Behaviour and the Nature of Sexual Selection in Scatophaga stercoraria L. (Diptera: Scatophagidae). IX. Spatial Distribution of Fertilization Rates and Evolution of Male Search Strategy within the Reproductive Area. G. A. PARKER 93

On the Male Reproductive Behavior and Sustained Polymorphism of the RT Locus in Laboratory Populations of Ephestia kuhnielia. WILLIAM B. COTTER 109

Analytical Zoogeography of North American Mammals. JOHN W. WILSON, III 124

On Tooth Succession in Diademodon. J. W. OSBORN 141

A Comment on Evolution in the Drosophila obscura Species Group. JAMES S. FARRIS 158

A RepIy to Dr. Farris' Comment on Evolution in the Drosophila obscura Species Group. SEPPO LAKOVAARA, ANSSI SAURA, JUHANI LOKKI AND PEKKA LANKINEN 160

A Note on the Speed of Gene Frequency Changes in Reverse Directions in a Finite Population. TAKEO MARUYAMA AND MOTOO KIMURA 162

Sexual Dimorphism in Skates (Rajidae) and its Possible Role in Differential Niche Utilization. ALAN FEDUCCIA AND BOB H. SLAUGHTER 164

Vol. 28 June 1974 No. 2

The Evolution of Clutch Size and Reproductive Rates in Parasitic Cuckoos. ROBERT B. PAYNE 169

A Model to Explain Molt-Breeding Overlap and Clutch Size in Some Tropical Birds. MERCEDES S. FOSTER 182

The Origin and Function of "Bizarre" Structures: Antler Size and Skull Size in the "Irish Elk," Megaloceros giganteus. STEPHEN JAY GOULD 191

Evolutionary Responses of Plants to Seed-Eaters: Pine Squirrel Predation on Lodgepole Pine. PHILLIP F. ELLIOTT 221

Intra-Population Differentiation in Annual Plants. I. Veronica peregrina L. Raised Under Non-Competitive Conditions. YAN B. LINHART 232

Genetic Confirmation of the Origin of Clarkia lingulata. L. D. GOTTLIEB 244

Coadaptation and Recessive Lethal Content in DDT Resistant Populations of Drosophila melanogaster. WILLIAM W. JOHNSON 251

Frequency-Dependent Mate Selection in Mormoniella vitripennis. BRUCE GRANT, G. ANN SNYDER AND STEVEN F. GLESSNER 259

Uncorrelated Random Environments and their Effects on Gene Frequency. R. DENNIS COOK AND DANIEL L. HARTL 265

Autocorrelated Random Environments and their Effects on Gene Frequency. DANIEL L. HARTL AND R. DENNIS COOK 275

Genetic Divergence of Death Valley Pupfish Species: Biochemical Versus Morphological Evidence. BRUCE J. TURNER 281

Genetic Analysis of North American Populations of the Pink Salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, Possible Evidence for the Neutral Mutation-Random Drift Hypothesis. NEVIN ASPINWALL 295

Evolution of a Trihybrid Unisexual Fish (Poeciliopsis, Peociliidae). ROBERT C. VRIJENHOEK AND R. JACK SCHULTZ 306

The Evolution of Air-Breathing in Paleozoic Gnathostome Fishes. GARY C. PACKARD 320

Naturally Occurring Variation in Larval Color of Colias Butterflies: Isolation from Two Colorado Populations. RICHARD J. HOFFMANN AND WARD B. WATT 326

On the Reality of Zahnreihen and the Nature of Reality in Morphological Studies. ROBERT E. DEMAR 328

Mutation in Situ and the Origin of Localized Polymorphism in Avena barbata. K. N. RAI 330

Evolutionary Aspects of Marine Biology. RALPH I. SMITH 333

Evolution in Plants. DAVID M. MOORE 334

Vol. 28 September 1974 No. 3

Evolution of the World Fauna of Aquatic Free-Living Arthropods. JOHN L. CISNE 337

Breeding Systems and Resistance to Environmental Stress in Ciliates. DENNIS NYBERG 367

The Role of Genetic Drift in the Differentiation of Icelandic and Norwegian Cattle. K. K. KIDD AND L. L. CAVALLI-SFORZA 381

Genic Heterozygosity in the 13-Year Cicada, Magicicada. SUSAN R. KREPP AND MICHAEL H. SMITH 396

Polymorphic Mimicry and Natural Selection: A Reappraisal. JANET EDMUNDS AND MALCOLM EDMUNDS 402

Adult Movements and Population Structure in Euphydryas editha. P. F. BRUSSARD, P. R. EHRLICH, AND M. C. SINGER 408

The Congruence of Morphometric Shape in Relation to Genetic Divergence in Four Races of Morabine Grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Eumastacidae). WILLIAM R. ATCHLEY AND DAVID A. HENSLEIGH 416

The Influence of Sexual Selection and Interspecific Competition on Mockingbird Song (Mimus polyglottos). RICHARD D. HOWARD 428

Inchoate Speciation in Ceratopteris: An Analysis of the Synthesized Hybrid C. richardii X C. pteridoides. LESLIE G. HICKOK AND EDWARD J. KLEKOWSKI, JR 439

Relative Growth of the Titanothere Horn: A New Approach to an Old Problem. STEVEN M. STANLEY 447

Paleontology and Evolutionary Theory. DAVID B. KITTS 458

A Paternal Role in Galapagos Sea Lions? EDWARD H. MILLER 473

Galapagos Sea Lions Are Paternal. GEORGE W. BARLOW 476

Testing Evolutionary Hypotheses in Paleontology: A Comment on Makurath and Anderson (1973). NILES ELDREDGE 479

Evolution of Appalachian Gypidulid Brachiopods: A Reply to Eldredge (1974). JOSEPH H. MAKURAT 481

The Utility of Electrophoretic Analysis of Long-Lived Plants and Seeds for the Study of Evolution. L. D. GOTTLIEB 483

Polymorphic Mimicry and Natural Selection: A Reply to J. and M. Edmunds. PETER O'DONALD AND CHRISTINE PILECKI 484

Schooling Behavior in the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata): An Evolutionary Response to Predation. BENONI H. SEGHERS 486

Polymorphism in Cricket Frogs: An Hypothesis. WILLIAM W. MILSTEAD, A. STANLEY RAND, AND MARGARET M. STEWART 489

Reply to "Dinosaurs as Reptiles." JOHN H. OSTROM 491

Dinosaurs as Dinosaurs. PETER DODSON 494

Dinosaur Bioenergetics-A Reply to Bennett and Dalzell, and Feduccia. ROBERT T. BAKKER 497

A Final Word. ALBERT F. BENNETT 503

Endothermy, Dinosaurs, and Archaeopteryx. ALAN FEDUCCIA 503

The Evolutionary Origin of Hybrid Inviability. JERRY A. COYNE 505

Human Evolution. FREDERICK S. SZALAY 507

The Meaning of Fossils. PETER P. VAUGHN 508

Stability and Complexity in Model Ecosystems. THOMAS W. SCHOENER 510

Vol. 28 December 1974 No. 4

Effective Population Numbers in the Snail Cepaea nemoralis. J. J. D. GREENWOOD 513

Interdemic Selection and the Evolution of Altruism: A Computer Simulation Study. BRUCE R. LEVIN AND WILLIAM L. KILMER 527

Enzyme Variability in Natural Populations of Daphnia magna I. Population Structure in East Anglia. PAUL D. N. HEBERT 546

Genic and Chromosomal Differentiation in Pocket Gophers of the Geomys bursarius Group. ROBERT K. SELANDER, DONALD W. KAUFMAN, ROBERT J. BAKER, AND STEPHEN L. WILLIAMS 557

The Correlation of Climate and Host Plant Morphology with a Geographic Gradient of an Inversion Polymorphism in Drosophila pachea. B. L. WARD, W. T. STARMER, J. S. RUSSELL, AND W. B. HEED 565

Genetic Differentiation During the Speciation Process in Drosophila. FRANCISCO J. AYALA, MARTIN L. TRACEY, DENNIS HEDGECOCK, AND ROLLIN C. RICHMOND 576

Reproductive Relationships Between Homosequential Species of Hawaiian Drosophila. ELYSSE M. CRADDOCK 593

Comparative Geographic Variation in Menidia. MICHAEL S. JOHNSON 607

Genetic Variability in Edaphically Restricted and Widespread Plant Species. GARY R. BABBEL AND ROBERT K. SELANDER 619

Changes in Mating Behavior Produced by Selection for Ethological Isolation Between Ebony and Vestigial Mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. STELLA A. CROSSLEY 631

Spatial Segregation of Pins and Thrums in Populations of Hedyotis nigricans. DONALD A. LEVIN 648

Marine Faunal Dominance and Molluscan Shell Form. GEERAT J. VERMEIJ 656

Analysis of a Generic Level Transition in Cretaceous Ammonites. R. A. REYMENT 665

Dark CO2 Fixation, Habitat Preference and Evolution Within the Bromeliaceae. ERNESTO MEDINA 677

Lack of Allozymic Variability in Three Bee Species. THOMAS P. SNYDER 687

Chromosomal Evolution in Peromyscus. TIMOTHY E. LAWLOR 689

The Effect of Water on Pollen Germination in Two Species of Primula. DAN EISIKOWITCH AND STANLEY R. J. WOODELL 692

Proceedings of the Sixth Berkeley Symposium on Mathematical Statistics and Probability, Volume 5: Darwinian Neo-Darwinian, and Non-Darwinian Evolution. PETER F. BRUSSARD AND SIMON A. LEVIN 695

Evolution of the Metazoan Life Cycle. JOEL W. HEDGPETH 696

Announcement of New Editor 526

Vol. 29 March 1975 No. 1

The Bottleneck Effect and Genetic Variability in Populations. MASATOSHI NEI, TAKEO MARUYAMA, AND RANAJIT CHAKRABORTY 1

Genetic Variation in Hawaiian Drosophila I. Chromosome and Allozyme Polymorphism in D. setosimentum and D. ochrobasis from the Island of Hawaii. HAMPTON L. CARSON AND WALTER E. JOHNSON 11

Genetics of Natural Populations XLII. Three Decades of Genetic Change in Drosophila pseudoobscura. WYATT ANDERSON, THEODOSIUS DOBZHANSKY, OLGA PAVLOVSKY, JEFFREY POWELL, AND DARRELL YARDLEY 24

Interspecific Hybridization, Heterozygosity and Gene Exchange in Phlox. DONALD A. LEVIN 37

Evolutionary Genetics of Insular Adriatic Lizards. GEORGE C. GORMAN, MICHAEL SOULE, SUH YUNG YANG, AND EVIATAR NEVO 52

Phylogenetic Evolution in Columbidae as Revealed by Interrelationships of Genetic Systems

of Antigenic Characters. M. R. IRWIN 72

Group Selection, Sex, and Fossils. LEIGH VAN VALEN 87

Natural Selection on Morphological Phenotypes of the Lizard Uta Stansburiana. STANLEY F. Fox 95

Leptothorax duloticus and the Beginnings of Slavery in Ants. EDWARD O. WILSON 108

Monomorphic Mimicry in Nearctic Limenitis Butterflies: Experimental Hybridization of the L. arthemis-astyanax Complex with L. archippus. AUSTIN P. PLATT 120

Gregarious Nesting of the Mason Bee Hoplitis anthocopoides and the Evolution of Parasitism and Sociality Among Megachilid Bees. GEORGE C. EICKWORT 142

The Role of Predation in the Evolution of Social Behavior of Natural Populations of the Guppy, Poccilia reticulata (Pisces: Poeciliidae). JAMES A. FARR 151

DNA-DNA Hybridization Studies of Birds. G. F. SHIELDS AND N. A. STRAUS 159

Dioecism in Tropical Forest Trees. K. S. BAWA AND P. A. OPLER 167

Tooth Replacement: Efficiency, Patterns and Evolution. J. W. OSBORN 180

Fecundity in Distylous and Self-Incompatible Homostylous Plants of Mitchelia repens (Rubiaceae). FRED R. GANDERS 186

Reply to Comments on "Chromosomal Evolution in Peromyscus". ROBERT J. BAKER, J. HOYT BOWERS, AND MICHAEL H. SMITH 189

Evolution of the Brain and Intelligence. LEONARD RADINSKY 190

Announcement of Davis Meeting 86

Application for Membership 94

Vol. 29 June 1975 No. 2

Gene Control Mechanisms and Their Possible Bearing on the Neutralist-Selectionist Controversy. BRUCE WALLACE 193

Deep-Sea Asteroids: High Genetic Variability in a Stable Environment. FRANCISCO J. AYALA, JAMES W. VALENTINE, DENNIS HEDGECOCK AND LORRAINE G. BARR 203

Allelic Diversity in the Outcrossing Annual Plant Stephanomeria exigua ssp. carotifera (Compositae). L. D. GOTTLIEB 213

Song Dialects and Genetic Differences in White-Crowned Sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys). MYRON CHARLES BAKER 226

Unstable Intermediates Between Orinocan and Interior Semispecies of Drosophila paulistorum. THEODOSIUS DOBZHANSKY AND OLGA PAVLOVSKY 242

Evolution in Hawaiian Drosophilidae: Chromosomal Phylogeny of the Drosophila crassifemur Complex. JONG SIK YOON, KATHLEEN RESCH, M. R. WHEELER, AND R. H. RICHARDSON 249

Distribution and Evolutionary Significance of Chromosome Variation in Trillium ovatum. ICHIRO FUKUDA AND R. B. CHANNEL 257

Marginal Populations of Cepaea nemoralis (L.) on the Brandon Hills, England. I. Ecology and Ecogenetics. C. R. BANTOCK AND D. J. PRICE 267

Marginal Populations of Cepaea nemoralis (L.) on the Brandon Hills, England. II. Variation in Chiasma frequency. D. J. PRICE AND C. R. BANTOCK 278

Population Density and Mating Rates in Drosophila pseudoobscura. IRENE ANNE ECKSTRAND AND MARVIN BARR SEIGER 287

Ecology and Evolution of the Pitcher-Plant Mosquito: 1. Population Dynamics and Laboratory Responses to Food and Population Density. CONRAD A. ISTOCK, STEVEN S. WASSERMAN, AND HAROLD ZIMMER 296

Aspect Diversity in Moths: A Temperate-Tropical Comparison. ROBERT E. RICKLEFS AND KEVIN O'ROURKE 313

Bee Flowers: A Hypothesis on Flower Variety and Blooming Times. BERND HEINRICH 325

Host Castration as a Parasitic Strategy. MARIO BAUDOIN 335

The Behavioral Significance of Frill and Horn Morphology in Ceratopsian Dinosaurs. JAMES O. FARLOW AND PETER DODSON 353

Genetic Similarity and Distance: Comments and Comparisons. PHILIP W. HEDRICK 362

Sex Ratio Selection in an Age-Structured Population. ERIC L. CHARNOV 366

The Evidence for Reproductive Character Displacement Between the Toads Bufo americanus and B. woodhousii fowleri. JASPER J. LOFTUS-HILLS 368

Reply to Loftus-Hills. J. MICHAEL JONES 370

Complementary Roles of Halictids and Syrphids in the Pollination of Jepsonia heterandra (Saxifragaceae). ROBERT ORNDUFF 370

Pattern Diversity of Incompatibility Groups in Jepsonia heterandra (Saxifragaceae). ROBERT ORNDUFF AND STEPHEN G. WELLER 372

Darwinian or "Oriented" Evolution? THEODOSIUS DOBZHANSKY 375

Genetic Structure of Populations. S. K. JAIN 377

Gibbon and Siamang. DAVID J. CHIVERS 380

Application for Membership 384

Vol. 29 September 1975 No. 3

Genetic Structure of Populations of the Brown Snail (Helix aspersa). I. Microgeographic Variation. ROBERT K. SELANDER AND DONALD W. KAUFMAN 385

Geographic Variation in North American Colonies of Cepaea nemoralis. PETER F. BRUSSARD 402

Adaptive Differentiation with Little Genic Change Between Two Native California Minnows. JOHN C. AVISE, JERRY J. SMITH, AND FRANCISCO J. AYALA 411

Genetic Variation and Speciation in New World Cichlids. IRVING L. KORNFIELD AND RICHARD K. KOEHN 427

Correlations Between Quantitative Characters and Enzyme Genotypes in Avena barbata. J. L. HAMRICK AND R. W. ALLARD 438

Allozymes of Galapagos Tomatoes: Polymorphism, Geographic Distribution, and Affinities. CHARLES M. RICK AND JON F. FOBES 443

Competition Between Metal Tolerant and Normal Plant Populations A Field Experiment on Normal Soil. D. A. HICKEY AND T. McNEILLY 458

Hard and Soft Selection Revisited. BRUCE WALLACE 465

Evolutionary and Ecological Relationships Between Aquilegia formosa and A. pubescens (Ranunculaceae), Two Perennial Plants. VALERIE C. CHASE AND PETER H. RAVEN 474

The Novel Flavonoid Chemistry and Phylogenetic Origin of Phlox floridana. MORRIS LEVY AND DONALD A. LEVIN 487

The Evolution of Subdioecy in Morphologically Gynodioecious Species of Fuchsia sect. Encliandra (Onograceae). MARY T. KALIN ARROYO AND PETER H. RAVEN 500

High Frequency of One Element of Segregation Distorter in Natural Populations of Drosophila melanogaster. DANIEL L. HARTL AND NANCY HARTUNG 512

Selection for Mating Activity in Two Chromosomal Arrangements of Drosophila pseudoobscura. RICHARD N. SHERWIN 519

Semispecies of Drosophila athabasca Distinguishable by Male Courtship Sounds. DWIGHT D. MILLER, RAYMOND B. GOLDSTEIN, AND ROSEMARIE ANDERSON PATTY 531

Controls of Number of Bird Species on Montane Islands in the Great Basin. NED K. JOHNSON 545

On the Evolution of Complex Life Cycles. NORMAN A. BLADE AND RICHARD J. WASSERSUG 568

More on Complex Life Cycles. CONRAD A. ISTOCK 572

Chiasma Frequency and Adaptability in Locusts. JOHN M. DEARN 572

On the Quantification of Promiscuity (or "Promyscus" maniculatus?). R. B. Merritt AND B. J. WU 575

Sexual Drive of Normal and SR Flies of Drosophila nebulosa. CH. MALOGOLOWKIN-COHEN AND M. A. Q. RODRIGUES-PEREIRA 579

Competition and the Structure of Bird Communities. ROBERT E. RICKLEFS 581

The Genetic Structure of Populations. DANIEL L. HARTL 585

The Genetic Basis of Evolutionary Change. JOSEPH FELSENSTEIN 587

Application for Membership 591

Vol. 29 December 1975 No. 4

The Social Significance of Avian Winter Plumage Variability. SIEVERT ROHWER 593

A Cytogenetic Study of the White-throated Sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis (Gmelin). H. BRUCE THORNEYCROFT 611

The Biogeography of Laboratory Islands. BRUCE WALLACE 622

Simultaneous Selective Predation on Two Features of a Mixed Sibling Species Population. C. R. BANTOCK, J. A. BAYLEY, AND P. H. HARVEY 636

Saturniid Moths as Mimics: An Alternative Interpretation of Attempts to Demonstrate Mimetic Advantage in Nature. G. P. WALDBAUER AND J. G. STERNBURG 650

Coevolution of Plants and Herbivores: Passion Flower Butterflies. WOODRUFF W. BENSON, KEITH S. BROWN, JR., AND LAWRENCE E. GILBERT 659

Chromosome Evolution and Aneuploid Reduction in Calycadenia pauciflora (Asteraceae). GERALD D. CARR 681

The Genetic Composition of Philaenus spumarius Populations in Island Habitats Variably Affected by Voles. O. HALKKA, M. RAATIKAINEN, L. HALKKA AND R. HOVINEN 700

Biological Considerations of the Marsupial-Placental Dichotomy. JASON A. LILLEGRAVEN 707

Late Cenozoic Evolution of Tropical Lowland Vegetation in Veracruz, Mexico. ALAN GRAHAM 723

Character Displacement in the Radiolarian Genus, Eucyrtidium. DAVIDA E. KELLOGG 736

Island Biogeography of Ants. EDWARD L. GOLDSTEIN 750

Ecological Competition and the Advantage of the Rare Type in Drosophila melanogaster. CLAUDINE PETIT AND DANIELLE NOUAUD 763

Effects of Larval Biotic Residues on Viability in Four Species of Drosophila. MYRIAM BUDNIK AND DANKO BRNCIC 777

Reversed Sex-limited Mimicry in a Beetle. HENRY A. HESPENHEIDE 780

Announcements 610, 658, 722, 776, 783, 785

Reviewers of Manuscripts 784

Subject Index to Volume 29 786

Application for Membership 706

Vol. 30 March 1976 No. 1

In Memoriam: Theodosius Dobzhansky 1

Population Genetics of Marine Pelecypods. IV. Selection, Migration and Genetic Differentiation in the Blue Mussel Mytilus edulis. RICHARD K. KOEHN, ROGER MILKMAN AND JEFFRY B. MITTON 2

Geographic Protein Variation and Divergence in Populations of the Salamander Plethodon cinereus. RICHARD HIGHTON AND T. PRESTON WEBSTER 33

Genetic Differentiation in Speciose versus Depauperate Phylads: Evidence from the California Minnows. JOHN C. AVISE AND FRANCISCO J. AYALA 46

Relationships between Aggressive Behavior and Genic Heterozygosity in the Oldfield Mouse, Peromyscus polionotus. CHARLES T. GARTEN, JR 59

Butterfly Palatability and Mimicry: Experiments with Ameiva Lizards. THOMAS C. BOYDEN 73

The Maintenance of Non-Mimetic Forms in a Dimorphic Batesian Mimic Species. JOHN A. BARRETT 82

Studies in Warning Coloration and Mimicry. VII. Evolutionary Consequences of a Batesian-Mullerian Spectrum: A Model for Miillerian Mimicry. JAMES E. HUHEEY 86

Population Genetic Studies in Bees. 2. Sex-Limited Genes. WARWICK ESTEVAM KERR 94

The Influence of Genetic Variability on Wing Symmetry in Honeybees (Apis mellifera). DOROTHEA BRUCKNER 100

Genetic Changes in Natural Populations of Drosophila melanogaster. TAKAO K. WATANABE, TAISHU WATANABE AND CHOZO OSHIMA 109

Sib-mating Populations in an Unpredictable Environment: Effects on Components of Fitness. DAVID WOOL AND ELIYAHU SVERDLOV 119

Effects of Age, Rearing and Mating Experiences on Frequency Dependent Sexual Selection in Drosophila pseudoobscura. ANITA PRUZAN 130

Effects of Larval Biotic Residues on Chromosomal Polymorphism of Drosophila pavani. DANKO BRNCIC AND MYRIAM BUDNIK 146

Chromosome Evolution in Woodrats, Genus Neotoma (Rodentia: Cricetidae). J. T. MASCARELLO AND T. C. HSU 152

Influence of Environmental Factors on Frequencies of Certain Chromosomal Inversions in Chironomus tentans Fabricius. M. S. TOPPING AND A. B. ACTON 170

The Interrelation between Variability of Characters, Effectiveness of Energy Utilization, and Karyotype Structure in Fishes. GEORGE NIKOLSKY 180

Effective Population Number in Cepaea: A Modification. J. J. D. GREENWOOD 186

Evolution of the Brain and Intelligence: Comment on Radinsky's Review. HARRY J. JERISON 186

A Comment on the Role of Environmental Variation in Maintaining Polymorphisms in Natural Populations. EDWIN H. BRYANT 188

Variability of Mammals. SYDNEY ANDERSON 191

Genetics of Flowering Plants. L. D. GOTTLIEB 192

Sex and Evolution. DENNIS NYBERG 194

The Siamang in Malaya. JOHN G. FLEAGLE 196

Molecular Population Genetirs and Evolution. CHRISTOPHER WILLS 198

Coevolution of Animals and Plants. PETER F. BRUSSARD 199

Vol. 30 June 1976 No. 2

Partially Successful Attempt to Enhance Reproductive Isolation between Semispecies of Drosophila paulistorum. TH. DOBZHANSKY, O. PAVLOVSKY AND J. R. POWELL 201

Isozyme Variation in Natural Populations of Drosophila buzzatii. J. S. F. BARKER AND J. C. MULLEY 213

The Evolution of Social Behavior in Primitively Social Bees: A Multivariate Analysis. MICHAEL D. BREED 234

Environmental and Genetical Correlates of Disruptive Coloration in the Water Snake, Natrix s. sipedon. ROBERT R. BEATSON 241

Sexual Selection and Resource-Accruing Abilities in Anolis garmani. ROBERT L. TRIVERS 253

Devonian Amphibians: Did They Excrete Carbon Dioxide Via Skin, Gills, or Lungs? GARY C. PACKARD 270

Strains of Neurospora Collected from Nature. DAVID D. PERKINS, BARBARA C. TURNER AND EDWARD G. BARRY 281

Natural Selection and Random Genetic Drift in Phenotypic Evolution. RUSSELL LANDE 314

Consequences of Long-Term Artificial Selection, Inbreeding, and Isolation in Phlox: I. The Evolution of Cross-Incompatibility. DONALD A. LEVIN 335

Genetic Divergence and Morphological Convergence in the Prairie Dogs, Cynomys gunnisoni and Cynomys leucurus I. Morphological and Ecological Analyses. JOHN J. PIZZIMENTI 345

Genetic Divergence and Morphological Convergence in the Prairie Dogs, Cynomys gunnisoni and Cynomys leucurus II. Genetic Analyses. JOHN J. PIZZIMENTI 367

Mortality and Adaptive Mechanisms of Oryza perennis Strains. HIKO-ICHI OKA 380

Cruising Speed During Migration of the Striped Mullet (Mugil cephalus L.): An Evolutionary Response to Predation? CHARLES H. PETERSON 393

The Adaptive Significance of Alarm Calls Given by Shorebirds on Their Winter Feeding Grounds. N. W. OWENS AND J. D. GOSS-CUSTARD 397

Haemoglobin, Isoenzymes, and Tissue Differentiation. GREGORY S. WHITT 399

Intersexuality in the Animal Kingdom. ROBERT V. SHORT 402

Vol. 30 September 1976 No. 3

Outcrossing in Natural Populations. V. Analysis of Outcrossing, Inbreeding, and Selection in Clarkia exiles and Clarkia tembloriensis. FRANK C. VASEK AND JAMES HARDING 403

Multivariate Analysis of the Introgressive Replacement of Clarkia nitens by Clarkia speciosa polyantha (Onagraceae). WILLIAM L. BLOOM 412

Maintenance of Males and Females in Hermaphrodite Populations and the Evolution of Dioecy. M. D. ROSS AND B. S. WEIR 425

Breeding System Polymorphism in a Heterostylous Species. STEPHEN G. WELLER 442

Cytogenetics and Affinities of Vernonia (Compositae) from the Mexican Highlands and Eastern North America. SAMUEL B. JONES, JR - 455

Consequences of Long-Term Artificial Selection, Inbreeding and Isolation in Phlox. II. The Organization of Allozymic Variability. DONALD A. LEVIN 463

Genic Divergence and Local Population Differentiation by Random Drift in the Pocket Gopher Genus Geomys. DAN F. PENNEY AND EARL G. ZIMMERMAN 473

Population Genetics and Evolutionary Biology of the Cave Beetle Ptomaphagus hirtus. C. LAING, G. R. CARMODY AND S. B. PECK 484

Climatic Selection in Cepea hortensis at the Northern Limit of Its Range in Iceland. EINAR ARNASON AND P. R. GRANT 499

Selection at Two Levels in Hybrid Populations of Musca domestica. ROBERT R. SOKAL AND CHARLES E. TAYLOR 509

Heterosis Overdominance and Frequency-Dependent Selection in Drosophila melanogaster at the Sepia locus. D. ANXOLABEHERE 523

Ecology and Evolution of the Pitcher-Plant Mosquito. 2. The Substructure of Fitness. CONRAD A. ISTOCK, JAMES ZISFEIN AND KAREN J. VAVRA 535

Ecology and Evolution of the Pitcher-Plant Mosquito. 3. Resource Tracking by a Natural Population. CONRAD A. ISTOCK, KAREN J. VAVRA AND HAROLD ZIMMER 548

Multivariate Allometry and Australopithecine Variation. ROBERT S. CORRUCCINI 558

Components of Fitness in the Unisexual Fish Poeciliopsis monacha-occidentalis. WILLIAM S. MOORE 564

Evolution of the Migration Response: Emigration by Tribolium and the Influence of Age. JAMES R. ZIEGLER 579

Chromosomal Variation in the Plains Woodrat: Geographical Distribution of Three Chromosomal Morphs. JERRY W. WARNER 593

Size and Environmental Predictability for Salamanders. VIRGINIA C. MAIORANA 599

Sexual Selection in Nothobranchius guentheri (Pisces: Cyprinodontidae). RICHARD HAAS 614

Why Male-Haploid and Sex-Linked Genetic Systems Seem to Have Unusually Sex-Limited Mutational Genetic Loads. R. H. CROZIER 623

Isolation between Aquilegia formosa and A. pubescens: A Reply and Reconsideration. VERNE GRANT 625

Fiddler Crabs of the World. GARY W. HYATT 629

The Phylogeny and Systematic Position of Pogonophora. ROBERT B. WILLEY 632

The Ecological Genetics of Forest Trees. S. K. JAIN 634

Application for Membership 636

Vol. 30 December 1970 No. 4

Rates of Evolution in Conifers (Pinaceae). ELLEN M. PRAGER, DONALD P. FOWLER, AND ALLAN C. WILSON 637

The Ecological Context of Female Pattern Polymorphism in the Lizard Anolis sagrei. THOMAS W. SCHOENER AND AMY SCHOENER 650

The Nature of Niche Expansion in West Indian Anolis Lizards I: Ecological Consequences of Reduced Competition. BRADFORD C. LISTER 659

The Nature of Niche Expansion in West Indian Anolis Lizards II: Evolutionary Components. BRADFORD C. LISTER 677

Patterns of Mating in Natural Populations of Xiphophorus (Pisces: Poeciliidae). I: X. maculatus from Belize and Mexico. RICHARD BOROWSKY AND KLAUS D. KALLMAN 693

Social Facilitation of Male Sexual Behavior, Intrasexual Competition, and Sexual Selection in the Guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Pisces: Poeciliidae). JAMES A. FARR 707

Functional Aspects of the Evolution of Frog Tongues. PHLLIP J. REGAL AND CARL GANS 718

Presence of the Hereditary Rhabdovirus Sigma and Polymorphism for a Gene for Resistance to this Virus in Natural Populations of Drosophila melanogaster. A. FLEURIET 735

Ethological Isolation and Phylogeny in the Planitibia subgroup of Hawaiian Drosophila. KENNETH Y. KANESHIRO 740

Genetic Differentiation within the Andean Semispecies of Drosophila paulistorum. ROLLIN C. RICHMOND AND THEODOSIUS DOBZHANSKY 746

The Evolutionary Strategy of the Equidae and the Origins of Rumen and Cecal Digestion. CHRISTINE JANIS 757

Parental Investment and Offspring Fitness in the Terrestrial Isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Latr.) (Crustacea: Oniscoidea). LAWRENCE R. LAWLOR 775

Sympatry of Periodical Cicada Broods and the Hypothetical Four-Year Acceleration. MONTE LLOYD AND JO ANN WHITE 786

Allozymic and Morphological Variation in Population Samples of Rufous-Collared Sparrow, Zonotrichia capensis, in Relation to Vocal Dialects. PAUL HANDFORD AND FERNANDO NOTTEBOHM 802

Genetic and Biochemical Consequences of Polyploidy in Tragopogon. M. L. ROOSE AND L. D. GOTTLIEB 818

Hybridization and Speciation in Fossorial Mole Rats. EVIATAR NEVO AND HANA BAR-EL 831

Color Variation and Bisexual Muellerian Mimicry, in an Aposematic Insect. LARRY G. MASON 841

Reproductive Character Displacement in Threespine Sticklebacks. MICHAEL A. BELL 847

Mating-Call Structure in a Hybrid Population of the Geocrinia laevis Complex (Anura: Leptodactylidae) over a Seven-Year Period. M. J. LITTLEJOHN AND G. F. WATSON 848

Correlations between Some Measures of Genetic Distance. RANAJIT CHAKRABORTY AND YOSHIO TATENO 851

A Possible Case of Mimicry in Larger Mammals. RANDALL L. EATON 853

Evolutionary Concepts in the Study of Ecological Systems. WILLIAM J. PLATT 857

Memorial to Ralph Gordon Johnson 706

Application for Membership 745

Announcements 785, 840, 846

Reviewers of Manuscripts 859

Subject Index to Volume 30 860

Vol. 31 March 1977 No. 1

Chromosomal Divergence and Speciation in Two Families of North American Fishes. JOHN C. AVISE AND JOHN R. GOLD 1

Genetic Divergence in Closely Related Sibling Species Drosophila pseudoobscura, Drosophila persimilis and Drosophila miranda. SATYA PRAKASH 14

Genetic Homogeneity and Speciation in the Parthenogenetic Lizards Cnemidophorus velox and C. neomexicanus: Evidence from Intraspecific Histocompatibility. ORLANDO CUELLAR 24

Pollen-Ovule Ratios: A Conservative Indicator of Breeding Systems in Flowering Plants. ROBERT WILLIAM CRUDEN 32

Cryptic Self-Incompatibility in Amsinckia grandiflora. STEPHEN G. WELLER AND ROBERT ORNDUFF 47

The Reproductive Biology of Cupania guatemalensis Radlk. (Sapindaceae). K. S. BAWA 52

Spatial Relationships between Staminate and Pistillate Plants of Dioecious Tropical Forest Trees. K. S. BAWA AND P. A. OPLER 64

Host-Parasite Resemblance in Australian Mistletoes: The Case for Cryptic Mimicry. BRYAN A. BARLOW AND DELBERT WIENS 69

A General Model to Account for Enzyme Variation in Natural Populations. III Multiple Alleles. JOHN H. GILLESPIE 85

Electrophoretic Analysis of Evolutionary Relationships in Tetrahymena. D. BORDEN, E. T. MILLER, G. S. WHITT AND D. L. NANNEY 91

Temporal Variation in the Relationship between Size, Numbers, and an Allele-Frequency in a Population of Mytilus edulis. ROGER MILKMAN AND RICHARD K. KOEHN 103

Genetic Variation and Reproductive Isolation in Partula. MICHAEL S. JOHNSON, BRYAN CLARKE AND JAMES MURRAY 116

Allozyme, SI Gene, Cytological, and Morphological Polymorphisms in a Population of Oenothera biennis. ERICH STEINER AND DONALD LEVIN 127

An Experimental Study of Group Selection. MICHAEL J. WADE 134

Anelosimus studiosus (Araneae: Theridiidae) and the Evolution of Quasisociality in Theridiid Spiders. VINCENT BRACH 154

Male Rarity or Novelty, Female Choice Behavior, and Sexual Selection in the Guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peters (Pisces: Poeciliidae). JAMES A. FARR 162

Fighting Behavior of Muntjac and the Evolution of Antlers. CYRILLE BARRETTE 169

The Significance of Lactation in the Evolution of Mammals. CAROLINE M. POND 177

Population Size Fluctuations in the Evolution of Experimental Cultures of Drosophila subobscura. RAMON M. NOGUES 200

Observational Learning of Baboons and Avoidance of Mimics: Exploratory Tests. PIERRE JOUVENTIN, GEORGES PASTEUR AND JEAN P. CAMBEFORT 214

Reply to "Sexual Dimorphism in Skates (Rajidae)." JOHN D. MCEACHRAN 219

Variation in Agonistic Behavior between Populations of the Stomatopod, Haptosquilla glyptocercus. ROY L. CALDWELL AND HUGH DINGLE 221

Lek Behavior in Drosophila (Hirtodrosophila) polypori-Malloch-An Australian Rainforest Species. P. A. PARSONS 224

Life History Strategy and Evolutionary History of Tribolium Flour Beetles. PETER S. DAWSON 227

Hominid Biological Evolution. ARTHUR E. SPIESS 231

Application for Membership 232

Vol. 31 June 1977 No. 2

Life-History Variation in Poa annua. RICHARD LAW, A. D. BRADSHAW, AND P. D. PUTWAIN 233

Genetics of Lupinus. X. Genetic Variability, Heterozygosity and Outcrossing in Colonial Populations of Lupinus succulentus. JAMES HARDING AND KATHLEEN BARNES 247

Translocation Heterozygosity, Genetic Heterozygosity, and Inbreeding in Clarkia speciosa. WILLIAM L. BLOOM 256

The Evolution of Autogamy in Species of the Mustard Genus Leavenworthia. OTTO T. SOLBRIG AND REED C. ROLLINS 265

The Evolutionary Effects of Metalliferous and other Anomalous Soils in South Central Africa. H. WILD AND A. D. BRADSHAW 282

An Example of Sporangial Indehiscence in the Filicopsida. P. J. BROWNSEY 294

Enzyme Variation in Semi-Isolated Populations of the Mountain Fly Chamaemyia herbarum. THOMAS P. SLUSS, E. S. ROCKWOOD-SLUSS, AND F. G. WERNER 302

Genetic Diversity in Cave Dwelling Crickets (Ceuthophilus gracilipes). D. E. COCKLEY, J. L. GOOCH, AND D. P. WESTON 313

Evolution at the A-GPDH Locus in Drosophilidae. SEPPO LAKAVARRO, ANSSI SAURA, AND PETHA LANKINEN 319

Phosphoglucose Isomerase Polymorphism and Natural Selection in the Sand Crab, Emerita talpoida. KENDALL W. CORBIN 331

Detection of the Effects of Selection on Protein Polymorphisms in Natural Populations by Means of a Distance Analysis. RICHARD BOROWSKY 341

Bottleneck Effects on Average Heterozygosity and Genetic Distance with the Stepwise Mutation Model. RANAJIT CHAKRABORTY AND MASATOSHI NEI 347

Genetic and Environmental Correlations of Morphometric Traits in Randombred House Mice. LARRY LEAMY 357

Adaptive Features of Mammalian Reproduction. JOHN S. MILLAR 370

The Lansing Effect Revisited. II. Cumulative and Spontaneously Reversible Parental Age Effects on Fecundity in Drosophila melanogaster. F. A. LINTS AND C. HOSTE 387

General Concepts on the Evolutionary Biology of Parasites. PETER W. PRICE 405

Inhibition of Cannibalism in Cichia ocellaris and Hypothesis of Predator Mimicry among South American Fishes. THOMAS M. ZARET 421

What is Frequency-Dependent Selection? MARK H. GROMKO 438

Statistical Tests for Natural Selection on Quantitative Characters. RUSSELL LANDE 442

Extinction, Repopulation, and Population Size in Natural Populations of Ambushbugs. LARRY G. MASON 447

Stabilizing Selection for Size as Related to Mating Fitness in Tetraopes. JOSEPH F. SCHEIRING 447

Dinosaur Haversian Bone and Endothermy. MARIANNE BOUVIER 449

A Suggestion Concerning the Cretaceous Rise to Dominance of the Angiosperms. PETER H. RAVEN 451

The Existence of Mullerian Mimicry. P. M. SHEPPARD AND J. R. G. TURNER 452

On the Supposed Spectrum between Batesian and Mullerian Mimicry. WOODRUFF W. BENSON 454

Molecular Evolution. ROGER MILKMAN 456

Gamete Competition in Plants and Animals. STEPHEN G. WELLER 457

Chromosome Variations in Human Evolution. DOROTHY A. MILLER 458

Handbook of Genetics. ROLLIN C. RICHMOND 460

Announcements 293, 437, 463

Application for Membership 464

Vol. 31 September 1977 No. 3

Allozyme Linkage Disequilibria among Chromosome Complexes in the Permanent Translocation Heterozygote Oenothera biennis. MORRIS LEVY AND P. LOUIS WINTERNHEIMER 465

The Organization of Genetic Variability in Phlox drummondii. DONALD A. LEVIN 477

The Evolution of Inflorescence Size in Asclepias (Asclepiadaceae). MARY F. WILSON AND PETER W. PRICE 495

Maintenance of Polymorphism in an Island Population of the California Vole, Microtus californicus. AYESHA E. GILL 512

Inbreeding Effects Upon Animals Derived from a Wild Population of Mus musculus. CAROL BECKER LYNCH 526

Bergmann's Rule and Variation in Structures Related to Feeding in the Gray Squirrel. RAYMOND J. BARNETT 538

Evolution of Dormancy and its Photoperiodic Control in Pitcher-Plant Mosquitoes. WILLIAM E. BRADSHAW AND L. PHILIP LOUNIBOS 546

Coevolution of Pierid Butterflies and Their Cruciferous Foodplants. II. The Distribution of Eggs on Potential Foodplants. FRANCES S. CHEW 568

Morphometric Adaptation of the Housefly, Musca domestica L., in the United States. EDWIN H. BRYANT 580

Evolutionary Divergence between Two Populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura. MARY ANN MATZKE AND MARVIN DRUGER 597

Evolution of Sex Ratios in the Isopod, Venezillo evergladensis. CLIFFORD JOHNSON 603

Genetic Analysis of the Morphological Differences between Two Interfertile Species of Hawaiian Drosophila. F. C. VAL 611

Analysis of Head Shape Differences between Two Interfertile Species of Hawaiian Drosophila. ALAN R. TEMPLETON 630

Variability and Evolutionary Rates of Characters. MICHAEL S. JOHNSON AND M. F. MICKEVICH 642

Selection Intensity in North American House Sparrows (Passer domesticus). PETER E. LOWTHER 649

Canary Island Blue Tits and English Coal Tits: Convergent Evolution? LINDA PARTRIDGE AND FRANCIS PRING-MILL 657

Frequency-Dependent Choice, Minority Advantages, and Frequency-Dependent Natural Selection. PAUL A. DEBENEDICTIS 666

Communal Care and Kidnapping of Young by Parental Cichlids. KENNETH R. McKAYE AND N. M. McKAYE 674

Do Intertidal Snails Spawn in the Right Places? TOM M. SPIGHT 682

Adaptive Flexibility of "Marginal" Versus "Central" Populations of Drosophila willistoni. WALTER J. TABACHNICK AND JEFFREY R. POWELL 692

Why 300 Species of Hawaiian Drosophila? The Sexual Selection Hypothesis. JOHN M. RINGO 695

Memorial To I. M. Lerner 656

Application for Membership 691

Vol. 3 December 1977 No. 4

Genetic Variation in Thomomys bottae Pocket Gophers: Macrogeographic Patterns. JAMES L. PATTON AND SUH Y. YANG 697

Evolutionary Aspects of Mating Call Variation in a Diploid-Tetraploid Species Complex

of Treefrogs (Anura). DENNIS B. RALIN 721

A Darwinian Interpretation of Hindlimb Variability in Frog Populations. STANLEY N. SALTHE AND MARTHA L. CRUMP 737

Reproductive Success and the Evolution of Breeding Territories in Pupfish (Cyprinodon). ASTRID KODRIC-BROWN 750

Variation and Heterozygosity in Sexually Versus Clonally Reproducing Populations of Poeciliopsis. ROBERT C. VRIJENHOEK, ROBERT A. ANGUS, AND R. JACK SCHULTZ 767

Biological Variability in the Parthenogenetic Grasshopper Warramaba virgo (Key) and its Sexual Relatives. I. The Eastern Australian Populations. WILLIAM R. ATCHLEY 782

Selection for Amylase Allozymes in Drosophila melanogaster. D. A. HICKEY 800

Population Genetics in the American Tropics. X. Genetic Load Differences in Drosophila willistoni from Columbia. H. F. HOENIGSBERG, J. J. PALOMINO, M. J. HAYES, I. Z. ZANDSTRA, AND G. G. ROJAS 805

Character Displacement for Sexual Isolation Between Drosophila mojavensis and Drosophila arizonensis. MARVIN WASSERMAN AND H. ROBERTA KOEPFER 812

Mutual Facilitation Between Larvae of the Sibling Species Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans. M. BOS, B. BURNET, R. FARROW, AND R. A. WOODS 824

Olfactory Cues as a Factor in Frequency-Dependent Mate Selection in Mormoniella vitripennis. HARRY C. WHITE AND BRUCE GRANT 829

Genetic Diversity in Colonizing Parthenogenetic Cockroaches. E. DAVIS PARKER, JR., ROBERT K. SELANDER, ROBERT O. HUDSON, AND L. J. LESTER 836

On the Structure of Fitness Estimates Under Post-Observational Selection. FREDDY BUGGE CHRISTANSEN, JORGEN BUNDGAARD, AND J. S. F. BARKER 843

Evolution of Insect Life Histories and Host Plant Chemistry: Hispine Beetles on Heliconia. DONALD R. STRONG, AND MICHAEL D. WANG 854

Temporal Dioecism: An Alternative to Dioecism? ROBERT WILLIAM CRUDEN AND SHARON MARIE HERMANN-PARKER 863

Sex Ratio in the Tropical Tree Triplaris americana (Polygonaceae). MICHAEL N. MELAMPY AND HENRY F. HOWE 867

Natural Selection for a Fruit Dimorphism in Plectritis congestra (Valerianaceae). FRED R. GANDERS, KEN CAREY, AND A. J. F. GRIFFITHS 873

Lifespan and Fecundity Patterns in Rotifers: The Cost of Reproduction. TERRY W. SNELL AND CHARLES E. KING 882

A Reappraisal of the Aquatic Specializations of the Galapagos Marine Iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus). WILLIAM R. DAWSON, GEORGE A. BARTHOLOMEW, AND ALBERT F. BENNETT 891

Biological Aspects of the Marsupial-Placental Dichotomy: A Reply to Lillegraven. JOHN A. W. KIRSCH 898

Genetics of Dacus oleae. VIII. Selection for the Amount of Acetylcholinesterase After Organophosphate Treatment. SPYROS C. TSAKAS 901

The Social Significance of Avian Winter Plumage Variability: A Comment. WILLIAM M. SHIELDS 905

Chimpanzee Predation as a Possible Factor in the Evolution of Red Colobus Monkey Social Organization. CURT D. BUSSE 907

Evolution of Cytoplasmic Inheritance. DENNIS NYBERG 911

An Almost Comprehensive Survey of Evolution. ERNST MAYR 912

Population Genetics and Ecology. JOSEPH FELSENSTEIN 916

Application for Membership 920

Reviewers of Manuscripts 921

Subject Index to Volume 31 923

Vol. 32 March 1978 No. 1

Genetic Variation in Isolated Populations of the Australian Bush-Rat, Rattus fuscipes. LINCOLN H. SCHMITT 1

Selection at Electrophoretic Loci for Reproductive Parameters in Island and Mainland Voles. PETER H. KOHN AND ROBERT H. TAMARIN 15

Island Area and Body Size of Insular Mammals Evidence from the Tri-Colored Squirrel (Callosciurus prevosti) of Southwest Asia. LAWRENCE R. HEANEY 29

On the Evolution of Litter Size in Peromyscus leucopus. THEODORE H. FLEMING AND ROBERT J. RAUSCHER 45

Evolution on Wild Sheep in Iran. RAUL VALDEZ, C. F. NADLER, AND T. D. BUNCH 56

Evolutionary Mechanisms of Limb Loss in Tetrapods. RUSSELL LANDE 73

Genetic Differentiation in Salamanders of the Desmognathus ochrophaeus Complex (Plethodontidae). STEPHEN G. TILLEY, ROBERT B. MERRITT, BARBARA WU, AND RICHARD HIGHTON 93

Genic Variability in the Longnose Dace, Rhinickthys cataractae. ROBERT B. MERRITT, JEAN F. ROGERS, AND BRENDA J. KURZ 116

Selection for Tryptophan Auxotrophs of Escherichia coli in Glucose-Limited Chemostats as a Test of the Energy Conservation Hypothesis of Evolution. DANIEL DYKHUIZEN 125

The Competitive Relationship of Three Woodland Sedges and its Bearing on the Evolution of Ant-Dispersal of Carex pedunculata. STEVEN N. HANDEL 151

Genetic Polymorphism and Phylogeny of Drosophila subobscura. DRAGOSLAV MARINKOVIC, FRANCISCO J. AYALA, AND MARKO ANDJELKOVIC 164

The Evolution of Gynodioecy and Subdioecy. M. D. ROSS 174

Pollinator Constancy as a Pre-Pollination Isolating Mechanism Between Sympatric Species of Cercidium. C. EUGENE JONES 189

Genetic Differentiation Between Species of the Genus Speyeria (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). JOHN G. BRITTNACHER, STEVEN R. SIMS, AND FRANCISCO J. AYALA 199

Thermal Relations and Natural Selection by Climate. J. S. JONES 211

Directional Reduction of Lactate Dehydrogenase Isozymes in Teleosts. S. A. TOLEDO Fo AND A. F. RIBEIRO 212

A Note on Gillespie's Model of Enzyme Variation in Natural Populations. S. D. TULJAPURKAR 216

Sex and Development in Mitochondria and Chloroplasts. LYNN MARGULIS 218

The Selfish Gene. MICHAEL J. WADE 220

Morphology and Biology of Reptiles. MALCOLM JOLLIE 221

Evolution of Brain and Behavior. RALPH L. HOLLOWAY 223

Protein Structure and Evolution. WALTER M. FITCH 225

Agricultural Applications of Angiosperm Reproductive Biology. STEPHEN G. WELLER 227

Problems in Vertebrate Evolution. MALCOLM JOLLIE 229

Application for Membership 232

Vol. 32 June 1978 No. 2

The Origin of Tripsacoid Maize (Zea mays L.). J. M. J. DE WET, J. R. HARLAN, H. T. STALKER AND A. V. RANDRIANASOLO 233

Genetic Variation in Annual Phlox: Self-Compatible Versus Self-Incompatible Species. DONALD A. LEVIN 245

Sexual Selection in Toads: The Roles of Female Choice and Male Body Size. HENRY M. WILBUR, DANIEL I. RUBENSTEIN AND LINCOLN FAIRCHILD 264

Population Subdivision and Genetic Divergence in the Red-Bellied Newt, Taricha rivularis. DENNIS HEDGECOCK 271

Correlations of Quantitative Parameters of Fecundity in Amphibians. MITSURU KURAMOTO 287

The Evolutionary Significance of Delayed Emergence from the Nest by Hatchling Turtles. J. WHITFIELD GIBBONS AND DAVID H. NELSON 297

Selective Predation of Threespine Sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) by Garter Snakes. MICHAEL A. BELL AND THOMAS R. HAGLUND 304

Reproductive Adaptations among Viviparous Fishes (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae). ROGER E. THIBAULT AND R. JACK SCHULTZ 320

Chromosomal Homology and Divergence between Sibling Species of Deer Mice: Peromyscus maniculatus and P. melanotis (Rodentia, Cricetidae). IRA F. GREENBAUM, ROBERT J. BAKER AND J. HOYT BOWERS 334

Genetic Variation Associated with Growth Rate in the American Oyster (Crassostrea virginica). S. M. SINGH AND E. ZOUROS 342

Genetic Evidence for Naturally Occurring Hybrids between Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis. D. O. F. SKIBINSKI, MAHMUD AHMAD AND J. A. BEARDMORE 354

Phenotypes and Genotypes in Cladoceran Populations. B. JEAN MANNING, W. CHARLES KERFOOT AND EDWARD M. BERGER 365

Biological Variability in the Parthenogenetic Grasshopped Warramaba virgo (Key) and its Sexual Relatives. II. The Western Australian Taxa. WILLIAM R. ATCHLEY 375

A Multivariate Analysis of Behavioral Divergence among Closely Related Species of Endemic Hawaiian Drosophila. J. M. RINGO AND R. J. HODOSH 389

Demographic and Genetic Responses of Two Strains of Tribolium castaneum to a Novel Environment. DAVID E. McCAULEY 398

Mating Pattern and Mating Success of Drosophila pseudoobscura Karyotypes in Large Experimental Populations. WYATT W. ANDERSON AND PATRICIA R. McGUIRE 416

On the Maintenance of Stability in Hindwing Diversity among Moths of the Genus Catocala (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). THEODORE D. SARGENT 424

Courtship Patterns and Evolution of the Drosophila adiastola and planitibia Species Subgroups. HERMAN T. SPIETH 435

Density Dependent Foraging on Liatris pycnostachya. BARBARA A. SCHAAL 452

Evolutionary Transition from Ammonite Subprionocyclus to Reesidites-Punctuated or Gradual? PHILIP D. GINGERICH 454

Why are There Inbreeding Effects in Haplo-Diploid Systems? DOROTHEA BRUCKNER 456

Vertebrate Air Breathing Arose in Fresh Waters and Not in the Oceans. JEFFREY B. GRAHAM, RICHARD H. ROSENBLATT AND CARL GANS 459

Application for Membership 464

Vol. 32 September 1978 No. 3

The Founder-Flush Speciation Theory: An Experimental Approach. JEFFREY R. POWELL 465

Evolution in Hawaiian Drosophilidae, III. The Microchromosome and Heterochromatin of Drosophila. JONG SIK YOON AND R. R. RICHARDSON 475

Ethological Isolation and Phylogeny in the Grimshawi Species Complex of Hawaiian Drosophila. ALAN T. OHTA 485

Resource Partitioning in Passion Vine Butterflies. WOODRUFF W. BENSON 493

Reproductive Compensation in Tiibolium castaneum. JOHN F. BOYER 519

Genetic Differentiation, Albumin Evolution, and Their Biogeographic Implications in Plethodontid Salamanders

of California and Southern Europe. DAVID B. WAKE, LINDA R. MAXSON, AND GLORIA Z. WURST 529

Courtship and Mating Sounds in Species of the Drosophila affinis Subgroup. HO-CHI CHANG AND DWIGHT D. MILLER 540

Allometry and jumping in Frogs: Helping the Twain to Meet. SHARON B. EMERSON 551

The Genetics of Speciation in the Rodent Genus Peromyscus. EARL G. ZIMMERMAN, C. WILLIAM KILPATRICK, AND B. J. HART 565

Developmental Stability in Species Hybrid and Backcross Progenies of Drosophila, ANAND P. GUPTA 580

Sperm Competition, Male Fitness, and Repeated Mating by Female Drosophila melanogaster. MARK H. GROMKO AND DONALD W. PYLE 588

Experimental Hybridization between the Nymphalid Butterflies Phyciodes tharos and P. campestris montana. CHARLES G. OLIVER 594

Analysis of a Narrow Hybrid Zone between Two Species of Pseudophryne (Anura: Leptodactylidae) in South-Eastern Australia. L. J. McDONNELL, D. F. GARTSIDE, AND M. J. LITTLEJOHN 602

Ecological and Evolutionary Relationships among Diploid and Triploid Unisexual Fishes Associated with the Bisexual Species, Poeciliopsis lucida (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae). ROGER E. THIBAULT 613

Genetic Differentiation without Isolation in the American Eel, Anguilla rostrata. II. Temporal Stability of Geographic Patterns. RICHARD K. KOEHN AND GEORGE C. WILLIAMS 624

Intra-Population Differentiation in Annual Plants, II. Electrophoretic Variation in Veronica peregrina. KATHLEEN H. KEELER 638

Chromosomal Evolution and the Mode of Speciation in Three Species of Peromyscus. IRA F. GREENBAUM, ROBERT J. BAKER, AND PAUL R. RAMSEY 646

The Evolution of Parental Care in Birds. A. AR AND YOM-TOV 655

Reply to Shields on Avian Winter Plumage Variability. SIEVERT ROHWER 670

Why are Pistillate Inflorescences of Simarouba glauca Eaten Less than Staminate Inflorescences? K. W. BAWA AND PAUL A. OPLER 673

Resource Predictability and Niche Breadth in the Drosophila quinaria Species Group. JOHN JAENIKE 676

Genetic Variability in the Kentucky Cave Beetle Neaphaenops tellkampfii (Coleoptera: Carabidae). STEVEN GIUSEFFI, THOMAS C. KANE, AND WILLIAM F. DUGGLEBY 679

Genetic Variation among Typha Populations of the Southwestern United States. SUSAN J. MASHBURN. REBECCA R. SHARITZ, AND MICHAEL H. SMITH 681

Evolutionary Changes to the Primate Skull and Dentition. ALBERT P. SANTA LUCA 686

Geographic Variation, Speciation, and Clines. PHILIP W. HEDRICK 687

A Further Step in Evolving Ideas on Population Genetics. WILLIAM J. SCHULL 689

Grasshoppers and Locusts. ROBERT B. WILLEY 690

Plant Population Biology at the Crossroads. STEPHEN G. WELLER 691

Molecular Anthropology. THOMAS J. WHITE AND ALLAN C. WILSON 693

Annoucements 474, 601, 645, 696

Application for Membership 695

Vol. 32 December 1978 No. 4

Dominance, Survival, and Enzyme Polymorphism in Dark eyed juncos, Junco hyemalis. MYRON CHARLES BAKER AND STANLEY F. FOX 697

Song Dialects as Barriers to Dispersal in White-Crowned Sparrows, Zonotrichia leucophrys Nuttalli. MYRON CHARLES BAKER AND L. RICHARD MEWALDT 712

Temporal Patterns of Allozymic Variation in Fluctuating Populations of Microtus ochrogaster. MICHAEL S. GAINES, LEROY R. McCLENAGHAN JR., AND ROBERT K. ROSE 723

Relative Brain Size and Feeding Strategies in the Chiroptera. JOHN F. EISENBERG AND DON E. WILSON 740

Primate Skeletal Allometry and Hominoid Evolution. ROBERT S. CORRUCCINI 752

Comparative Morphometric Adaptation of the Housefly and the Face Fly in the United States. EDWIN H. BRYANT AND CARL R. TURNER 759 Female Choice and the Mating Structure of a Natural Population of the Soldier Beetle, Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus. DAVID E. MCCAULEY AND MICHAEL J. WADE 771

Thermoregulatory Adaptations Allowing Ecological Range Expansion by the Pierid Butterfly, Nathalis iole Boisduval. MATTHEW M. DOUGLAS AND JOHN W. GRULA 776

An Analysis of Genetic Structure in the Monarch Butterfly, Danaus plexippus L. WALTER F. EANES AND RICHARD K. KOEHN 784

Genetic Differentiation in two Members of the Drosophila athabasca Complex. DIANA L. E. JOHNSON 798

Sex Ratios in Tropical Forest Trees. P. A. OPLER AND K. S. BAWA 812

Biology of Ecologically Marginal Populations of Anthoxantham odoratum. I. Phenetics and Dynamics. MICHAEL C. GRANT AND JANIS ANTONOVICS 822

Effective Population Size and Interdemic Migration Rates in a Metapopulation of the Red-Spotted Newt, Notophthalmus viridescens (Rafinesque). DOUGLAS E. GILL. 839

The Evolution of Mating Strategies in Bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana. RICHARD D. HOWARD 850

The Handicap Principle in Sexual Selection. GRAHAM BELL 872

The Tailspot Polymorphism of Xiphophorus (Pisces: Pocciliidae). RICHARD BOROWSKY 886

The Evolution and Loss of Feeding Larval Stages of Marine Invertebrates. RICHARD R. STRATHMANN 894

Progressive Vacating of Adaptive Types, During the Phanerozoic. RICHARD R. STRATHMANN 907

Frequency-Dependent Selection: What is the Problem? PAUL DEBENEDICTIS 915

Laboratory Synthesis of a Pseudogamous Triploid "Species" of the Genus Muellerianella (Homoptera, Delphacidae). SAKIS DROSOPOULOS 916

Selection for Amylase Allozymes in D. melanogaster: A Word of Caution. DARREL G. YARDLEY 921

Modifiers and "Sex Ratio" in Drosophila pseudoobscura. DAVID POLICANSKY AND BRIAN DEMPSEY 922

Chromosomes and Species Formation. HAMPTON L. CARSON 925

An Introduction to Evolutionary Theory. JAY M. SAVAGE 927

Major Patter in Vertebrate Evolution. RICHARD WASSERSUG 928

Population Ecological Models. DAVID B. MERTZ 930

Changes in Journal Policies 936

New Editorial Board 1979 936

Announcements 722, 758, 811

Application for Membership 838

Reviewers of Manuscripts 933

Subject Index to Volume 32 935

Vol. 33 March 1979 No. 1 (Part 1)

Biochemical and Cytological Differentiation among Cichlid Fishes of the Sea of Galilee. I. L. KORNFIELD, U. RITTE, C. RICHLER, AND J. WAHRMAN 1

Population Structure of Freshwater Fishes I. Genetic Variation of Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) Populations in Man-Made Reservoirs. JOHN C. AVISE AND JAMES FELLEY 15

Clonal Diversity in the Unisexual Fish Poeciliopis monacha-lucida: A Tissue Graft Analysis. ROBERT A. ANGUS AND R. JACK SCHULTZ 27

Evolutionary Aspects of Parental Care in the Common Grackle, Quiscalus quiscula L. HENRY F. HOWE 41

Floral Display in Phlox and Geranium: Adaptive Aspects. MARY F. WILLSON, LINDA J. MILLER, AND BEVERLY J. RATHCKE 52

A Geographical Analysis of Quantitative Morphological Variation in the Grasshopper Arphia conspersa. WAYNE E. SCHENNUM AND ROBERT B. WILLEY 64

Cytogenetics of the Parthenogenetic Grasshopper Warramaba (formerly Moraba) virgo and its Bisexual Relatives. V. Interaction of W. virgo and a Bisexual Species in Geographic Contact. M. J. D. WHITE AND N. CONTRERAS 85

Studies on Food Size as a Selection Pressure on Body Size. I. Effects of Food Size on Fitness of Two Size Strains of Acheta domesticus L. PATRICIA S. TENNIS, JOSEPH F. KOONCE, AND MITSUO TERAGUCHI 95

Reproductive Character Displacement in Calopteryx (Odonata: Calopterygidae). JONATHAN K. WAAGE 104

Evolution of the Sting Apparatus in the Myrmicine Ants. CHARLES KUGLER 117

Resistance of the Sibling Species Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans to High Temperatures in Relation to Humidity: Evolutionary Implications. PETER A. PARSONS 131

Genetic Variation in Hawaiian Drosophila. V. Chromosomal and Allozymic Diversity in Drosophila silvestris and its Homosequential Species. ELYSSE M. CRADDOCK AND WALTER E. JOHNSON 137

The Drosophila of Southern California. I. Colonization After a Fire. JOHN A. MOORE, CHARLES E. TAYLOR, AND BETTY C. MOORE 156

Mating Patterns and Speciation in the Fairy Shrimp Genus Streptocephalus. FRED H. WIMAN 172

Behavioral and Biochemical Evidence for Species Distinctiveness in the Fiddler Crabs, Uca speciosa and U. spinicarpa. MICHAEL SALMON, STEPHEN D. FERRIS, DAVID JOHNSTON, GARY HYATT, AND GREGORY S. WHITT 182

The Relation of Genetic Structure to Environmental Structure: Gammarus minus in a Karst Area. JAMES L. GOOCH AND STEVEN W. HETRICK 192

Competitive Hierarchics in Laboratory Drosophila. D. GOODMAN 207

Evolutionary, Implications of Chromosomal Homology, in Four Genera of Stenodermine Bats (Phyllostomatidae: Chiroptera). ROBERT J. BAKER, REBECCA A. BASS, AND M. ANETTE JOHNSON 220

Momentarily Excessive Construction as the Basis for Protoadaptation. CARL GANS 227

Effective Deme Sizes During Long-Term Evolution Estimated from Rates of Chromosomal Rearrangement. RUSSELL LANDE 234

Self-Fertilization: Advantageous or Deleterious? HARRINGTON WELLS 252

Announcement of the Annual Meeting of the Society 94

Application for Membership 256

Vol. 33 March 1979 No. 1 (Part 2)

Evolution of the Richness-area Correlation for Cynipid Gall Wasps on Oak Trees: A Comparison of Two Geographic Areas. HOWARD V. CORNELL AND JAN O. WASHBURN 257

Batesian Mimicry: Field Demonstration of the Survival Value of Pipevine Swallowtail and Monarch Color Patterns. M. R. JEFFORDS, J. G. STERNBURG, AND G. P. WALDBAUER 275

Genetic Distinctness of Svmpatric Forms of Aedes aegypti in East Africa. WALTER J. TABACHNICK, LEONARD E. MUNSTERMANN, AND JEFFREY R. POWELL 287

Cytogenetics and Evolution of Simulium ornatipes Skuse (Diptera: Simuliidae). II. Temporal Variation in Chromosomal Polymorphisms and Homosequential Sibling Species. D. G. BEDO 296

Cytogenetics and Evolution of Simulium ornatipes Skuse (Diptera: Simuliidae). III. Geographic Variation of Chromosomal Polymorphisms and Species Divergence. D. G. BEDO 309

Parental Manipulation, Kin Selection, and the Evolution of Altruism. ROBIN CRAIG 319

Relatedness in the Polygynous Ant Myrmecia pilosula. R. CRAIG AND R. H. CROZIER 335

Aldehyde Oxidase Allozymes, Inversions and DDT Resistance in Some Laboratory Populations of Drosophila melanogaster. C. C. LAURIE-AHLBERG AND D. J. MERRELL 342

Genetic Capacity for Adaptation to Cold Resistance at Different Developmental Stages of Drosophila melanogaster. NIKOLA TUCIC 350

Average Fitness of Populations of Drosophila melanogaster as Estimated Using Compound-Autosome Strains. HANS JUNGEN AND D. L. HARTL 359

Estimation of Average Fitness of Populations of Drosophila melanogaster and the Evolution of Fitness in Experimental Populations. D. L. HARTL AND HANS JUNGEN 371

Population Genetics of Mexican Drosophila VI. Cytogenetic Aspects of the Inversion Poly morphism in Drosophila pseudoobscura. O. OLVERA, J. R. POWELL, M. DE LA ROSA, V. M. SALCEDA, M. I. GASO, J. GUZMAN, W. W. ANDERSON, AND L. LEVINE 381

Heterozygosity and Developmental Stability: Another Look. MICHAEL E. SOULE 396

Quantitative Genetic Analysis of Multivariate Evolution, Applied to Brain: Body Size Allometry. RUSSELL LANDE 402

The Adaptive Demography of Four Freshwater Pulmonate Snails. KENNETH M. BROWN 417

"Protovipers" and the Evolution of Snake Fangs. KENNETH V. KARDONG 433

New Statistical Methods for Allometry with Application to Florida Red-winged Blackbirds. JAMES E. MOSIMANN AND FRANCES C. JAMES 444

Heritability of Some Morphological Characters in a Song Sparrow Population. JAMES N. M. SMITH AND RETO ZACH 460

Species-Area Relations of Birds on Small Islands in a Minnesota Lake. KURT A. RUSTERHOLZ AND ROBERT W. HOWE 468

Genetics of Speciation in Lake Whitefishes in the Allegash Basin. MARK KIRKPATRICK AND ROBERT K. SELANDER 478

The Evolution and Breakdown of Tristyly. DEBORAH CHARLESWORTH 486

The Evolutionary Breakdown of Tristyly in Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms (Water Hyacinth). SPENCER C. H. BARRETT 499

Convergent Evolution Between Phyla: A Test Case of Mimicry Between Caddisfly Larvae (Helicopsyche borealis) and Aquatic Snails (Physa integra). JOEL BERGER AND JERRY KASTER 511

Once Again, Why 300 Species of Hawaiian Drosophila? ALAN R. TEMPLETON 513

A Comment on Vegetative and Seed Reproduction in Plants. WARREN G. ABRAHAMSON 513

Reply to W. G. Abrahamson. RICHARD LAW, A. D. BRADSHAW, AND P. D. PUTWAIN 519

Application for Membership 286

Vol. 33 June 1979 No. 2

Influence of Microhabitat Heterogeneity on Gene Frequency Distribution and Gametic Phase Disequilibrium in Avena barbata. J. L. HAMRICK AND L. R. HOLDEN 521

Protein Polymorphism in the Narrow Endemic Oenothera organensis. DONALD A. LEVIN, KREHE RITTER AND NORMAN C. ELLSTRAND 534

Genetic Variation in Hawaiian Drosophila Vl. Seasonally-dependent Gene Changes in Drosophila mimica. WILLIAM W. M. STEINER 543

The Population Structure of an Asexual Vertebrate, Poeciliopsis 2 monacha-lucida (Pisces: Pocciliidae). WILLIAM S. MOORE AND A. BRADLEY EISENBREY 563

Genetic Drift in Small Populations of Tribolium. S. S. RICH, A. E. BELL AND S. P. WILSON 579

Evolutionary Changes in Egg-Eating Behavior of Flour Beetles in Mixed-Species Populations. PETER S. DAWSON 585

Evolutionary Genetics of Diploid-Tetraploid Species of Treefrogs of the Genus Hyla. DENNIS B. BALIN AND ROBERT K. SELANDER 595

Countergradient Selection in the Green Frog, Rana clamitans. KEITH A. BERVEN, DOUGLAS E. GILL AND SANDRA J. SMITH-GILL 609

Genic Changes Associated with the Establishment of Sympatry, in Orioles of the Genus Icterus. KENDALL W. CORBIN, CHARLES G. SIBLEY AND ANDREW FERGUSON 624

Frequency-Dependent Mating in a Modified Allozyme Locus of Drosophila pseudoobscura. ANTONIO FONTDEVILA AND JOSEFINA MENDEZ 634

Polymorphism for Breeding Colors in Gasterosteus aculeatus. I. Their Genetics and Geographic Distribution. D. W. HAGEN AND G. E. E. MOODIE 641

Sexual Selection and BodN Size in Male Red-Winged Blackbirds. WILLIAM A. SEARCY 649

Breeding Systems and the Evolution of Dioecy in New Zealand Apioid Umbelliferae. C. J. WEBB 662

Sex Differences and Flowering Phenology in the Common Fig, Ficus carica L. GEORGES VALDEYRON AND DAVID G. LLOYD 673

Shell Architecture and Causes of Death of Micronesian Reef Snails. GEERAT J. VERMEIJ 686

Fish Predation and the Evolution of Gastropod Shell Sculpture: Experimental and Geographic Evidence. A. RICHARD PALMER 697

The Morphology of a "Hybrid Zone" in Cerion: Variation, Clines, and an Ontogenctic Relationship Between two "Species" in Cuba. LYNNE GALLER AND STEPHEN JAY GOULD 714

Reproductive Isolation in Sympatric Species of Dayflying Moths (Hemileuca: Saturniidae). MICHAEL M. COLLINS AND PAUL M. TUSKES 728

Rates of Molecular and Chromosomal Evolution in Salamanders. LINDA E. R. MAXSON AND ALLAN C. WILSON 734

Ecological Generalism in Drosophila falleni: Genetic Evidence. JOHN JAENIKE AND ROBERT K. SELANDER 741

The Primary Characteristics of Tribolium Populations Group Selected for Increased and Decreased Population Size. MICHAEL J. WADE 749

Evolution of Handling Time: The Functional Response of a Predator to the Density of Sympatric and Allopatric Strains of Prey. TODD P. LIVDAHL 765

Mutual Facilitation Between Larvae of Drosophila melanogaster Cultured on Sterol Mutant Yeast. MARTEN BOS 768

On Premating Isolation Between Two Closely Related Species of Hawaiian Drosophila. GRAEME F. WATSON 771

Are Parthenogenetic and Related Bisexual Insects Equal in Fertility? RICHARD Y. LAMB AND ROBERT B. WILLEY 774

Some Problems with the Evolution of Sex. DENNIS NYBERG 776

Application for Membership 640

Vol. 33 September 1979 No. 3

Genetic Variation and Host Plant Relations in a Parthenogenetic Moth. CHARLES MITTER, DOUGLAS J. FUTUYMA, JOHN C. SCHNEIDER, AND J. DANIEL HARE 777

Rapid Host Range Evolution in a Population of the Phytophagous Mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. FRED GOULD 791

Monoterpene Variation in Ponderosa Pine Xylem Resin Related to Western Pine Beetle Predation. KAREEN B. STURGEON 803

Genetic Diversity and Environmental Associations of Wild Barley, Hordeum spontaneum, in Israel. EVIATAR NEVO, DANIEL ZOHARY, A. H. D. BROWN, AND MICHAEL HABER 815

Evolution in Peripheral Isolated Populations: Carpodacus Finches on the California Islands. DENNIS M. POWER 834

Heterosis and Intercional Variation in Thermal Tolerance in Unisexual Fishes. ARTHUR J. BULGER AND R. JACK SCHULTZ 848

Hybrid Zones in Thomomys bottae Pocket Gophers: Genetic, Phenetic, and Ecologic Concordance Patterns. JAMES L. PATTON, JOHN C. HAFNER, MARK S. HAFNER, AND MARGARET F. SMITH 860

Evidence for Ecological Character Displacement in Western American Catostomid Fishes. A. E. DUNHAM, G. R. SMITH, AND J. N. TAYLOR 877

Tests of Community-Wide Character Displacement Against Null Hypotheses. DONALD R. STRONG, JR., LEE ANN SZYSKA, AND DANIEL S. SIMBERLOFF 897

Elevational Gradients in Adult Sex Ratios and Sexual Differentiation in Vegetative Growth Rates of Populus tremuloides Michx. MICHAEL C. GRANT AND JEFFRY B. MITTON 914

Sexual Dimorphism in Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera): Evolutionary and Adaptive Significance. ROBERT W. EPP AND WILLIAM M. LEWIS, JR. 919

Natural Selection Resisting Inbreeding Depression in Captive Wild Housemice (Mus muscuIus). JAMES L. CONNOR AND MITCHELL J. BELLUCCI 929

Evolution of Color Pattern and Pubescence Characteristics in Male Bumblebees: Automimicry vs. Thermoregulation. EDMUND W. STILES 941

A Model of Fire Selection for Serotiny in Lodgepole Pine. DAVID A. PERRY AND JAMES E. LOTAN 958

Selection for Serotiny in Lodgepole Pine: Mathematical Analysis of the Model of Perry and Lotan. DANIEL L. HARTL 969

Evolution of Temperate Fruit/Bird Interactions: Phenological Strategies. JOHN N. THOMPSON AND MARY F. WILLSON 973

Ectothermy and the Success of Dinosaurs. MICHAEL J. BENTON 983

Evolution of Paedomorphosis in Salamanders of the Genus Gyrinophilus. RICHARD C. BRUCE 998

Character Variability and Evolutionary Rate in Menidia. BRUCE RISKA 1001

Arthropod Evolution and Classification. HOWARD E. EVANS 1005

The Genetics of Behavior. PHILIP HEDRICK 1006

Evolutionary Biology. STEPHEN C. STEARNS 1007

Change in Editorial Policy 790

Application for Membership 957

Vol. 33 December 1979 No. 4

Speciation in North American Field Crickets: Evidence from Electrophoretic Comparisons. RICHARD G. HARRISON 1009

Gene Duplication and Phylogeny in Clarkia. L. D. GOTTLIEB AND N. F. WEEDEN 1024

Phylogenetic Relationships Between Man and the Apes: Electrophoretic Evidence. ELIZABETH J. BRUCE AND FRANCISCO J. AYALA 1040

Comparative Albumin and Biochemical Evolution in Plethodontid Salamanders. LINDA R. MAXSON AND RICHARD D. MAXSON 1057

Genetic Differentiation Within the Melanogaster Species Group of the Genus Drosophila (Sophophora). KAREL T. EISSES, HENK VAN DIJK, AND WILKE VAN DELDEN 1063

Hybridization Between Species of the Rana pipiens Complex in Central Texas. RICHARD D. SAGE AND ROBERT K. SELANDER 1069

Natural Hybridization and Genetic Divergence Between the Toads Bufo boreas and Bufo punctatus. JULIANA H. FEDER 1089

Hybridization in Milkweed Bugs of the Genus Oncopeltus (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). FLAVIA A. O'ROURKE 1098

The Genetic Basis of the Ecological Amplitude of Spartina patens. I. Morphometric and Physiological Traits. JOHN A. SILANDER AND JANIS ANTONOVICS 1114

Selection on Amylase Allozymes in Drosophila melanogaster: Selection Experiments Using Several Independently Derived Pairs of Chromosomes. D. A. HICKEY 1128

Evolution of Competitive Ability in Mixtures of Drosophila melanogaster: Populations with an Initial Asymmetry. D. S. SULZBACH AND J. M. EMLEN 1138

Phenotypic Consequences of Parthenogenesis in Cnemidophorus Lizards. I. Variability in Parthenogenetic and Sexual Populations. E. DAVIS PARKER, JR 1150

Phenotypic Consequences of Parthenogenesis in Cnemidophorus Lizards. II. Similarity of C. tesselatus to its Sexual Parental Species. E. DAVIS PARKER, JR. 1167

Population Dynamics of Indigo Buntings and the Evolution of Avian Polygyny. MICHAEL CAREY AND VAL NOLAN, JR. 1180

17-Year Cicadas Emerging After 18 Years: A New Brood? JO ANN WHITE AND MONTE LLOYD 1193

An Evolutionary Examination of the Floral Display of Catalpa speciosa (Bignoniaceae). ANDREW G. STEPHENSON 1200

Genetic Variability and Founder Effect in the Pitcher Plant Sarracenia purpurea L. KENT E. SCHWAEGERLE AND BARBARA A. SCHAAL 1210

On the Selective Advantage of Fratricide in Raptors. CHRISTOPHER H. STINSON 1219

Neighborhood Size in Viola. ANDREW J. BEATTIE AND DAVID C. CULVER 1226

Evolutionary Principles of the Mammalian Middle Ear. R. ERIC LOMBARD 1230

Evolution Meetings-Corrected Dates 1231

Announcements 1232, 1233, 1234

Society Election Results 1235

Application for Membership 1236

Subject Index to Volume 33 1237

Vol. 34 January 1980 No. 1

Paedomorphosis in Relation to Rates of Morphological and Molecular Evolution in the Salamander Aneides flavipunctatus (Amphibia, Plethodontidae). ALLAN LARSON 1

Selective Mortality and Reproduction in a Natural Population of Bufo boreas. PAUL B. SAMOLLOW 18

Phenotypic Variation and the Outcome of Interspecific Competition in Hylid Tadpoles. JOSEPH TRAVIS 40

The Implications of Ovum Size Variability for Offspring Fitness and Clutch Size Within Several Populations of Salamanders (Ambystoma). ROBERT H. KAPLAN 51

Maladaptation in a Marginal Population of the Mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis. STEPHEN C. STEARNS AND RICHARD D. SAGE 65

Natural Selection on Color Patterns in Poecilia reticulata. JOHN A. ENDLER 76

The Population Biology of the White-lipped Land Snail, Triodopsis albolabris: Genetic Variability. GARY F. McCRACKEN AND PETER F. BRUSSARD 92

The Distribution of an Esterase Polymorphism in Macrogynes and Microgynes of Myrmica rubra Latreille. BARRIE PEARSON AND ANTHONY R. CHILD 105

Patterns of Allozymic Similarity in Ecologically Central and Marginal Populations of Hordeum jubatum in Utah. KATHY M. SHUMAKER AND GARY R. BABBEL 110

Variation in the Breeding System of Elymus canadensis. THOMAS B. SANDERS AND J. L. HAMRICK 117

The Distributions of Gender in Four Angiosperm Species Illustrating Two Evolutionary Pathways to Dioecy. DAVID G. LLOYD 123

Floral Mimicry by Epidendrum ibaguense (Orchidaceae) in Panama. THOMAS C. BOYDEN 135

Evolution and Speciation of Host Plant Specific Yeasts. WILLIAM T. STARMER, HENRY W. KIRCHER, AND HERMAN J. PHAFF 137

Divergence in the Enchenopa binotata Say Complex (Homoptera: Membracidae) Effected by Host Plant Adaptation. T. K. WOOD 147

Sexual Selection and Dimorphism in Two Demes of a Symbiotic, Pair-bonding Snapping Shrimp. NANCY KNOWLTON 161

Sexual Selection and the Evolution of Pair-bonding in Soldier Beetles. LARRY G. MASON 174

The Inversion Polymorphism of Keyacris scurra and the Adaptive Topography. D. J. COLGAN AND J. CHENEY 181

Latitudinal Gradients in the Species Diversity of North American Mammals. EARL D. MCCOY AND EDWARD F. CONNOR 193

An Examination of the Trophic Resource Stability Theory Using Oyster Species of the Family Ostreidae. NORMAN E. BUROKER 204

Evolution and American Society of Naturalists Meetings 208

Sale of Back Issues of Evolution 136

Application for Membership 109

Vol. 34 March 1980 No. 2

Population Genetics of Drosophila Amylase III. Interspecific Variation. JEFFREY R. POWELL, MARTA RICO, AND MARKO ANDJELKOVIC 209

The Apportionment of Genetic Variation Within and Among Populations of Desmodium nudiflorum. BARBARA A. SCHAAL AND WILLIAM G. SMITH 214

Albumin Evolution in Marsupial Frogs (Hylidae: Gastrotheca). BRIAN E. SCANLAN, LINDA R. MAXSON, AND WILLIAM E. DUELLMAN 222

Evolution of an Enzyme System: Ascorbic Acid Biosynthesis in Monotremes and Marsupials. ELMER C. BIRNEY, ROBERT JENNESS, AND IAN D. HUME 230

Genetic Relationships of the Color Morphs of the Serranid Fish Hypoplectrus unicolor. JOHN E. GRAVES AND RICHARD H. ROSENBLATT 240

Evolutionary Genetics of a Gynogenefic Fish, Poecilia formosa, the Amazon Molly. BRUCE J. TURNER, BETTY-LOU H. BRETT, ELLEN M. RASCH, AND JOSEPH S. BALSANO 246

Trophic Differentiation in Ilyodon, a Genus of Stream-dwelling Goodeid Fishes: Speciation Versus Ecological Polymorphism. BRUCE J. TURNER AND DANIEL J. GROSSE 259

Reproductive Strategies in the Surfperches. I. Multiple Insemination in Natural Populations of the Shiner Perch, Cymatogaster aggregata. JOAN D. S. DARLING, MARTHA L. NOBLE,

Clutch Size, Breeding Success, and Parental Survival in the Tree Swallow (Iridoprocne bicolor). DIANE DE STEVEN 278

Sexual Dimorphism, Sexual Selection, and Adaptation in Polygenic Characters. RUSSELL LANDE 292

Sex Ratio in the Sailfin Molly, Poecillia latipinna. FRANKLIN F. SNELSON, JR. AND JEFFREY D. WETHERINGTON 308

Male Mating Discrimination in Drosophila melanogaster, D.simulans and their Hybrids. DAVID WOOD AND JOHN M. RINGO 320

A Comment on "Mate Recognition Systems." HUGH E. PATERSON 330

Interspecific Competition, Island Biogeography and Null Hypotheses. P. R. GRANT AND I. ABBOTT 332

Host Abundance, Juvenile Survival, and Oviposition Preference in Battus philenor. MARK D. RAUSHER 342

Variation in Photoperiodic Response Within and Among Species of Milkweed Bugs (Oncopeltus). HUGH DINGLE, BETH M. ALDEN, NIGEL R. BLAKLEY, DIANNE KOPEC, AND ELIZABETH RUTH MILLER 356

Variation in Body Size and Flight Performance in Milkweed Bugs (Oncopeltus). HUGH DINGLE, NIGEL R. BLAKLEY, AND ELIZABETH RUTH MILLER 371

Brain Structure in Chiroptera: Some Multivariate Trends. GEORG, BARON AND PIERRE JOLICOEUR 386

The Zoogeography of Specialized Cave Animals: a Bioclimatic Model. FRANCIS G.HOWARTH 394

Topics in Plant Population Biology,. S. J. McNAUGHTON 407

Evolution and American Society of Naturalists Meetings 306

Application for Membership 307

Evolution Under interspecific Competition: Field Experiments on Terrestrial Salamanders. NELSON G. HAIRSTON 409

Sexual Isolation Among Populations of Drosophila mohavensis: Response to Pressure from a Related Species. E. ZOUROS AND C. J. D'ENTREMONT 421

Selection for Competitive Ability: Negative Results in Drosophila. D. S. SULZBACH 431

Sexual Isolation, Speciation and the Direction of Evolution. KENNETH V. KANESHIRO 437

Altered Competition Between Two Reproductively Isolated Strains of Drosophila melanogaster. ANITA PRUZAN-HOTCHKISS, IRA B. PERELLE, FREDERICK H. C. HOTCHKISS, AND LEE EHRMAN 445

Mechanisms of Fixation and Accumulation of Centric Fusions in Natural Populations of Mus musculus L. I. Karyological Analysis of a Hybrid Zone between Two Populations in the Central Apennines. FRANCO SPIRITO, ANTONELLA MODESTI, PAOLO PERTICONE, MAURO CRISTALDI, ROBERTO FEDERICI, AND MARCO RIZZONI 453

Mimicry of Male by Female Flowers and Intrasexual Competition for Pollinators in Jacaratia dolichaula (D. Smith) Woodson (Caricaceae). K. S. BAWA 467

Mass-Flowering of a Tropical Shrub (Hybanthus prunifolius): Influence on Pollinator Attraction and Movement. CAROL K. AUGSPURGER 475

Evolution of Floral Display in the Orchid Brassavola nodosa. DOUGLAS W. SCHEMSKE 489

Effects of Cold Climate on the Evolution of Pinniped Breeding Systems. RAYMOND PIEROTTI AND DAVID PIEROTTI 494

Local Population Size as a Determinant of Mating System and Sexual Composition in two Tropical Marine Fishes (Thalassoma spp.). ROBERT R. WARNER AND STEVEN G. HOFFMAN 508

Mate Choice in Hylobittacus apicalis (Insects: Mecoptera) and its Relation to Some Models of Female Choice. RANDY THORNHILL 519

Evolution of Clonal Diversity in the Parthenogenetic Fly Lonchoptera dubia. HOWARD OCHMAN, BO STILLE, MONICA NIKLASSON, ROBERT K. SELANDER, AND ALAN R. TEMPLETON 539

The Nature of Variation in Life History Characters of Dysdercus bimaculatus (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae), a Colonizing Species. JANICE A. DERR 548

Geographic Variation in the Milkfish Chanos chanos. I. Biochemical Evidence. GARY A. WINANS 558

On Caste Ratios in Ant Colonies: Population Responses to Changing Environments. JOAN M. HERBERS 575

Unpalatability as a Defense Strategy of Euphydryas phaeton (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). M. DEANE BOWERS 586

Heterozygote Advantage at the Fruit Wing locus in Plectritis congesta (Valerianaceae). KEN CAREY AND FRED R. GANDERS 601

Selection for Amylase Allozymes in Drosophila melanogaster: A Reply. W. SHARLOO AND G. DE JONG 608

When is it Coevolution? DANIEL H. JANZEN 611

The Question of Synchromy or "Temporal Sympatry" in Mimicry. JAMES E. HUHEEY 614

Evolution and American Society of Naturalists Meetings 613

Application for Membership 612

Vol. 34 September 1980 No. 5

Genic and Organismic Selection. SEWALL WRIGHT 825

An Experimental Study of Kin Selection. MICHAEL J. WADE 844

Growth Rate in Oysters: an Overdominant Phenotype and its Possible Explanations. E. ZOUROS, SHIVA M. SINGH, AND HEATHER E. MILES 856

Selection for Amylase Allozymes in Drosophila melanogaster: Some Questions. WINIFRED W. DOANE 868

Enzymatic Polymorphism in Drosophila subobscura Populations From the Canary Islands. V. M. CABRERA, A. M. GONZALEZ, AND A. GULLON 875

Phylogenetic and Environmental Determinants of Geographic Variation of the Pocket Mouse Perognathus goldmani Osgood. DONALD O. STRANEY AND JAMES L. PATTON 888

Genetic Variation and Evolutionary Relationships Within a Group of Thirteen Species of Penaeid Prawns. J. C. MULLEY AND B. D. H. LATTER 904

Interspecific Hybridization and the Evolutionary Origin of a Gynogenetic Fish, Poecilia formosa. BRUCE J. TURNER, BETTY-LOU H. BRETT, AND ROBERT R. MILLER 917

Recombination System and Population Structure in Oenothera. NORMAN C. ELLSTRAND AND DONALD A. LEVIN 923

Pollinator Foraging Behavior and Gene Dispersal in Senecio (Compositae). JOHANNA SCHMITT 934

The Impact of Floral Parasitism in Two Neotropical Hummingbird- Pollinated Plant Species. LUCINDA A. McDADE AND SHARON KINSMAN 944

Ecological Constraints on the Evolution of Breeding Systems in Seed Plants: Dioecy and Dispersal in Gymnosperms. THOMAS J. GIVNISH 959

Parental Investment and Mating Systems in Mammals. SAMUEL I. ZEVELOFF AND MARK S. BOYCE 973

Outbreeding via Frequency-Dependent Mate Selection in the Parasitoid Wasp, Nasonia (=Mormoniella) vitripennis Walker. BRUCE GRANT, SUSAN BURTON, CHARLES CONTOREGGI, AND MITCHELL ROTHSTEIN 983

Sex Ratio, Body Size and Seasonality in a Solitary Bee, Osmia lignaria propinqua Cresson (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). P. F. TORCHIO AND V. J. TEPEDINO 993

Selective Predation of Gray jays, Perisoreus canadensis, upon Boreal Chorus Frogs, Pseudacris triseriata. WALTER TORDOFF III 1004

Evolution of Food Preferences in Fungus-Feeding Drosophila: an Ecological Study. MASAHITO T. KIMURA 1009

Geographic Range, Life Historv Patterns, and Body Size in a Guild of Coral-Dwelling Mantis Shrimps. MARJORIE L. REAKA 1019

Optimization in Evolution. MONTGOMERY SLATKIN 1031

Theory of Population Genetics and Evolutionary Ecology: an Introduction. HENRY M. WILBUR AND JOSEPH TRAVIS 1032

Evolution in Structured Populations. RICHARD E. MICHOD 1034

Evolution Manuscript Submission Information 1036

Vol. 34 November 1980 No. 6

Genetic Variation and Differentiation in Scandinavian Moose (Alces alces): Are Large Mammals Monomorphic? NILS RYMAN, CHRISTINA REUTERWALL, KAARLO NYGREN, AND TUIRE NYGREN 1037

Polymorphism for Breeding Colors in Gasterosteus aculeatus II. Reproductive Success as a Result of Convergence for Threat Display. D. W. HAGEN, G. E. E. MOODIE, AND P. F. MOODIE 1050

Genetic Variation and Population Differentiation in the Rhytidoponera impressa Group, a Species Complex of Ponerine Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). P. S. WARD 1060

Closely Linked Alpha-Chain Hemoglobin Loci in Peromyscus and Other Animals: Speculations on the Evolution of Duplicate Loci. LEE R. G. SNYDER 1071

Correlations of Allozymic Variation with Habitat Parameters Using the Grass Shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. BELINDA FULLER AND L. JAMES LESTER 1099

Consideration of Muller's Ratchet Mechanism through Studies of Genetic Linkage and Genomic Compatibilities in Clonally Reproducing Poeciliopsis. JAMES F. LESLIE AND ROBERT C. VRIJENHOEK 1105

Does Asymmetrical Mating Preference Show the Direction of Evolution? M. WASSERMAN AND H. R. KOEPFER 1116

Population Biology of Chamaelirium luteum, a Dioecious Lily. I. Spatial Distributions of Males and Females. THOMAS R. MEAGHER 1127

Role of Pollinators in the Evolution of Dioecy, from Distyly. J. H. BEACH AND K. S. BAWA 1138

Seed Production and Pollen Vectors in Several Nectarless Plants. MICHAEL N. MELAMPY AND ANITA M. HAYWORTH 1144

Experimental Confirmation of Heritable Morphological Variation in a Natural Population of Song Sparrows. JAMES N. M. SMITH AND ANDRE A. DHONDT 1155

Genetic Components of Size and Shape. I. Dynamics of Components of Phenotypic Variability and Covariability During Ontogeny in the Laboratory Rat. WILLIAM R. ATCHLEY AND J. J. RUTLEDGE 1161

Intraspecific Litter Size Variation in Microtus Californicus. II. Variation Between Populations. DAVID T. KROHNE 1174

r- and K-Selection in Drosophila pseudoobscura. CHARLES E. TAYLOR AND CINDRA CONDRA 1183

The Role of Venom Delivery Strategies in Snake Evolution. ALAN H. SAVITZKY 1194

Determination of the Time of Day at Which Diurnal Moths Painted to Resemble Butterflies are Attacked by Birds. M. R. JEFFORDS, G. P. WALDBAUER, AND J. G. STERNBURG 1205

Batesian and Mullerian Mimicry: Semantic and Substantive Differences of Opinion. JAMES E. HUHEEY 1212

Non-linear Macromolecular Evolution and the Molecular Clock. ROBERT S. CORRUCCINI, MARIETTA BABA, MORRIS GOODMAN, RUSSELL L. CIOCHON, AND JOHN E. CRONIN 1216

Genetic Variance, Fitness, and Homeostasis in Varying Environments: An Experimental Check of the Theory. TRUDY F. C. MACKAY 1219

Plant Parenthood. ROBERT ORNDUFF 1223

Macroevolution. ALAN R. TEMPLETON 1224

Evolution of Mating Preferences. ELIOT B. SPIESS 1227

Evolution and American Society of Naturalists 1981 Meeting 1225

Dobzhansky Prize, Application Information 1143

Announcements 1159, 1160, 1173

Subject Index, Volume 34 1230

Table of Contents, Volume 34 i

Vol. 35 July 1981 No. 4

Evolution of Host Plant Utilization in Laboratory Populations of the Southern Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). STEVEN S. WASSERMAN AND DOUGLAS J. FUTUYMA 605

Divergence in Allopatry: Molecular and Morphological Differentiation between Sea Urchins Separated by the Isthmus of Panama. H. A. LESSIOS 618

Aldehyde Oxidase Distribution in Picture-Winged Hawaiian Drosophila: Evolutionary Trends. JAYNE N. AHEARN AND DAVID T. KUHN 635

Morphological Variation in the Horseshoe Crab Limulus polyphemus. BRUCE RISKA 647

Algebra of Inclusive Fitness. KENICHI AOKI 659

Estimating the Degree of Polyandry in Natural Populations. JEROME WILSON 664

Inbreeding in an Island Population of the Great Tit. A. J. VAN NOORDWIJK AND W. SCHARLOO 674

Effects of Social Organization and Environmental Diversity on Determining the Genetic Structure of a Population of the Wild Rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus. JOANNE C. DALY 689

Mate Choice in the Wood Frog, Rana sylvatica. KEITH A. BERVEN 707

Asexual Reproduction and Environmental Predictability in Cestodes (Cyclophyllidea: Taeniidae). JANICE MOORE 723

Adaptive Significance of Delayed Attainment of Plumage in Male American Redstarts: Tests of Two Hypotheses. ELIZABETH PROCTOR-GRAY AND RICHARD T. HOLMES 742

Floral Sex Ratios and Life History in Aralia nudicaulis (Araliaceae). SPENCER C. H. BARRETT AND KAIUS HELENURM 752

Hawkmoths and the Geographic Patterns of Floral Variation in Aquilegia caerulea. RUSSELL B. MILLER 763

Parental Care and Mode of Fertilization in Ectothermic Vertebrates. MART R. GROSS AND RICHARD SHINE 775

Community-wide Character Displacement Reexamined. JOHN A. HENDRICKSON, JR 794

Straining at Gnats and Swallowing Ratios: Character Displacement. DONALD R. STRONG, JR. AND DANIEL S. SIMBERLOFF 810

Patterns of Size Variation in Bees and Evolution of Communication Svstems. KEITH D. WADDINGTON 813

Courtship Behavior and Evolutionary Status of the Hawaiian Drosophila primaeva Hardy and Kaneshiro. HERMAN T. SPIETH 815

A Geographic Perspective on the Ecology of Compound Leaves. LAWRENCE G. STOWE AND JEFFREY L. BROWN 818

Evolution-Science versus Creation-Science. WILLIAM GUEST AND FRANCES E. CLAYTON 822

Biochemical Systematics and Evolution. RICHARD HIGHTON 823

Sociobiology Evolving. STEVAN J. ARNOLD 824

A Review of the Genetics of Altruism. MICHAEL J. WADE 826

Application for Membership 828

Vol. 35 September 1981 No. 5

Disruptive Selection and Assortative Mating in Tribolium castaneum. RICHARD HALLIBURTON AND G. A. E. GALL 829

Effect of Inbreeding on the Evolution of Altruistic Behavior bv Kin Selection. MICHAEL J. WADE AND FELIX BREDEN 844

Populational Heritability. MONTGOMERY SLATKIN 859

Genetic Variability of the Face Fly, Musca autumnalis De Geer, in Relation to a Population Bottleneck. EDWIN H. BRYANT, HENK VAN DIJK AND WILKE VAN DELDEN 872

Evolution of Sex Ratio in Structured Demes. DAVID SLOAN WILSON AND ROBERT K. COLWELL 882

Sex Ratio Constancy in the Red-Winged Blackbird. KENT L. FIALA 898

Microspatial Genetic Heterogeneity in Pocket Gophers: Non-Random Breeding and Drift. JAMES L. PATTON AND JULIANA H. FEDER 912

Drosophila heteroneura and Drosophila silvestris: Head Shapes, Behavior and Evolution. HERMAN T. SPIETH 921

Selection Pressures Affecting Male Nutrient Investment at Mating in Heliconiine Butterflies. CAROL L. BOGGS 931

"Grandfather Effects": the Genetics Of Interpopulation Differences in Offspring Size in the Mosquito Fish. DAVID REZNICK 941

Parasexuality and Microevolution in Experimental Populations of Bacillus subtilis. JULIA GRAHAM AND CONRAD ISTOCK 954

Pollen-Ovule Ratio, Pollen Size, and the Ratio of Stigmatic Area to the Pollen-Bearing Area of the Pollinator: an Hypothesis. ROBERT WILLIAM CRUDEN AND SHARON MILLER-WARD 964

Evidence for the Evolution of Competition Between Two Species of Annual Plants. MARY M. MARTIN AND JAMES HARDING 975

Phenological Relationships of Model and Mimic Salamanders. EDMUND D. BRODIE, JR. 988

Predation Pressure and Gastropod Foraging: a Tropical-Temperate Comparison. MARK D. BERTNESS, STEPHEN D. GARRITY AND SALLY C. LEVINGS 995

A Chromosomal Cline in the Grasshopper Podisma pedistris. N. H. BARTON AND G. M. HEWITT 1008

Correlation Between Subcellular Location and Phosphoglucose Isomerase Variability. L. D. GOTTLIEB AND N. F. WEEDEN 1019

Courtship Behavior and Control of Reproductive Isolation Between Drosophila mojavensis and Drosophila arizonensis. THERESE ANN MARKOW 1022

The Terrestrial Environment and the Origin of Land Vertebrates. EVERETT C. OLSON 1027

The Eternal Search. JOHN G. FLEAGLE 1029

A Refreshed Orthodox View of Paleobiogeography of South American Mammals. OSVALDO A. REIG 1032

Application for Membership 871

Evolution and American Society of Naturalists 1982 Meetings 910

Dobzhansky Prize Awards 1036

Vol. 35 November 1981 No. 6

Genetic Components of Size and Shape. II. Multivariate Covariance Patterns in the Rat and Mouse Skull. WILLIAM R. ATCHLEY, J. J. RUTLEDGE, AND DAVID E. COWLEY 1037

The Genetic Basis of Microdifferentiation in Natural and Experimental Populations of Borrichia frutescens in Relation to Salinity. ANN E. ANTLFINGER 1056

Experimental Ecological Genetics in Plantago. V. Components of Seed Yield in the Ribwort Plantain Plantago lanceolata L. RICHARD B. PRIMACK AND JANIS ANTONOVICS 1069

Studies on the Population Biology of the Genus Viola. II. The Effect of Plant Size on Fitness in Viola sororia. OTTO T. SOLBRIG 1080

Temporal Variation of Gender in Aralia hispida Vent. (Araliaceae). JAMES D. THOMSON AND SPENCER C. H. BARRETT 1094

Sex Ratio of Rumex hastatulus: the Effect of Environmental Factors and Certation. J. S. CONN AND UDO BLUM 1108

Genetic Variability in Reproduction Rates in Marine Phytoplankton Populations. LARRY E. BRAND 1117

Genes Affecting Courtship Song and Mating Preference in Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila simulans and their Hybrids. MASAOKI KAWANISHI AND TAKAO K. WATANABE 1128

Effect of Size upon Mating Performance within Geographic Strains of the Housefly, Musca domestica L. F. TERRY BALDWIN AND EDWIN H. BRYANT 1134

Does High Fecundity Reduce Survival in Song Sparrows? JAMES N. M. SMITH 1142

Pre-partum Reproductive Characteristics of Eutherian Mammals. JOHN S. MILLAR 1149

Reproductive Isolation in Relation to Allozymic and Chromosomal Differentiation in the Grasshopper Caledia captiva. J. C. DALY, P. WILKINSON, AND D. D. SHAW 1164

Evolution of Histocompatibility Diversity in an Asexual Vertebrate, Poeciliopsis 2 monacha-lucida (Pisces: Poeciliidae). A. BRADLEY EISENBREY AND WILLIAM S. MOORE 1180

Population Genetics of Tigriopus californicus. II. Differentiation among Neighboring Populations. RONALD S. BURTON AND MARCUS W. FELDMAN 1192

Santa Rosalia Reconsidered: Size Ratios and Competition. DANIEL SIMBERLOFF AND WILLIAM BOECKLEN 1206

Evolutionary Trees from Gene Frequencies and Quantitative Characters: Finding Maximum Likelihood Estimates. JOSEPH FELSENSTEIN 1229

Using Frequency Distributions to Detect Selection: Inversion Polymorphisms in Drosophila pseudoobscura. DAVID S. HAYMER AND DANIEL L. HARTL 1243

Basis for a Skewed Sex Ratio in Dispause-Destined Flesh Flies. DAVID L. DENLINGER 1247

"Scientific Creationism" Bill in Louisiana Begat a Feud and a Lawsuit. E. PETER VOLPE 1249

Sex Ratio Compensation in Ant Populations. PETER D. TAYLOR 1250

Sex Ratio and Parental Investment in an Ant Population. ADRIAN FORSYTH 1252

Animal Play Behavior. MARC BEKOFF 1254

Mammalian Population Genetics: Progress Report on a World View in Transition. GEORGE F. BARROWCLOUGH 1255

How Biology was Unified. DAVID B. WAKE 1256

Announcements 1079, 1093, 1127

Evolution and American Society of Naturalists 1982 Meetings 1257

Application for Membership 1260 Reviewers of Manuscripts, 1981 1258 Subject Index, Volume 35 1259

Table of Contents, Volume 35 i

Vol. 36 January 1982 No. 1

Sexual Selection and the Evolution of Female Choice. MARK KIRKPATRICK 1

Models of Polygenic Sex Determination and Sex Ratio Control. M. G. BULMER AND J. J. BULL 13

"Sex-Ratio" Trait, Sex Composition, and Relative Abundance in Drosophila pseudoobscura. STEPHEN H. BRYANT, ANDREW T. BECKENBACH, AND GARY A. COBBS 27

Population Structure, Frequency-Dependent Selection, and the Maintenance of Sexual Reproduction. MARY V. PRICE AND NICKOLAS M. WASER 35

Sperm Competition and Sperm Storage as Determinants of Sexual Dimorphism in the Dwarf Surfperch, Micrometros minimus. ROBERT R. WARNER AND RONALD K. HARLAN 44

Adaptive versus Incidental Explanations for the Occurrence of Protandry in a Butterfly, Leptidea sinapis L. CHRISTER WIKLUND AND CHRISTER SOLBRECK 56

Genotypic Diversity in Oenothera laciniata (Onagraceae), a Permanent Translocation Heterozygote. NORMAN C. ELLSTRAND AND DONALD A. LEVIN 63

Pollinator Foraging on Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea): a Test of a New Model. LYNN S. BEST AND PAULETTE BIERZYCHUDEK 70

Gametic Disequilibrium in the Self-fertilizing Slug Deroceras laeve. DAVID W. FOLTZ, BARRY M. SCHAITKIN, AND ROBERT K. SELANDER 80

Alcohol Dehydrogenase and Glycerol-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Clines in Drosophila melanogaster on Different Continents. J. G. OAKESHOTT, J. B. GIBSON, P. R. ANDERSON, W. R. KNIBB, D. G. ANDERSON, AND G. K. CHAMBERS 86

Electrophoretic and Functional Enzymic Evolution in Four Species of Eastern Pacific Barracudas from Different Thermal Environments. JOHN E. GRAVES AND GEORGE N. SOMERO 97

Relatedness of Normal Queens (Macrogynes) in Nests of the Polygynous Ant Myrmica rubra Latreille. BARRIE PEARSON 107

Chromosomal Evidence for Parallel Evolution of Shell Sculpture Patterns in Goniobasis. STEVEN M. CHAMBERS 113

Genetic Studies on Sexual Isolation and Hybrid Sterility in Long-term Cage Populations of Drosophila melanogaster. G. KILIAS AND S. N. ALAHIOTIS 121

Morphometric Evidence for Incipient Speciation in Drosophila silvestris from the Island of Hawaii. H. L. CARSON, F. C. VAL, C. M. SIMON, AND J. W. ARCHIE 132

The Drosophilidae Associated with Tropical African Figs. DANIEL LACHAISE, LEONIDAS TSACAS, AND GUY COUTURIER 141

An Experimental Test of Natural Selection for Pupation Site in Swallowtail Butterflies. DAVID A. WEST AND WADE N. HAZEL 152

The Impact of Predation on Life History Evolution in Trinidadian Guppies (Poecilia reticulate). DAVID REZNICK AND JOHN A. ENDLER 160

Convergent and Divergent Effects of Natural Selection on Color Patterns in Two Fish Faunas. JOHN A. ENDLER 178

Differentiation of Adjacent Stream Populations of Threespine Sticklebacks. MICHAEL A. BELL 189

Searching for Parallel Enzyme Gene Variation Among Sympatric Congeners. SIRKKA- LIISA VARVIO-AHO AND PEKKA PAMILO 200

The Use of Parallel Patterns to Test Neutrality: A Reply to Varvio-Aho and Pamilo. RICHARD BOROWSKY 204


A Theme That Will Be Repeated. Joe Felsenstein 206

Puberty Rites of Biogeography. John A. Endler 207

Evolution Society News 211

Evolution Journal Publication Charges 211

Application for Membership 212

Vol. 36 March 1982 No. 2

Rapid Origin of Sexual Isolation and Character Divergence in a Cline. RUSSELL LANDE 213

Speciation Rates and Morphological Divergence in Fishes: Tests of Gradual Versus Rectangular Modes of Evolutionary Change. MICHAEL EDWARD DOUGLAS AND JOHN C. AVISE 224

Ecological and Behavioral Basis for Reproductive Isolation in the Sympatric Enchenopa binotata Complex (Homoptera: Membracidae). THOMAS K. WOOD AND SHELDON I. GUTTMAN 233

Mate Recognition and Mechanical Isolation in Enallagma Damselflies (Odonata: Coenagrionidae). HUGH M. ROBERTSON AND HUGH E. H. PATERSON 243

Sexual Selection in a Brented Weevil. LESLIE K. JOHNSON 251

Pleiotropy and Parapatric Speciation. MONTGOMERY SLATKIN 263

Group Selection Versus Individual Selection: an Experimental Analysis. DAVID M. CRAIG 271

Selection for Host Modification by Insect Parasitoids. ROBERT S. FRITZ 283

Rapid Divergence of Plant Populations in Response to Recent Changes in Soil Conditions. R. W. SNAYDON AND T. M. DAVIES 289

Rate of Environmental Change and Adaptation in the Copepod Eurytemora affinis. PHYLLIS A. KETZNER AND BRIAN P. BRADLEY 298

Experimental Changes in Resource Structure and Male Density: Size-Related Differences in Mating Success among Male Scatophaga stercoraria. GERALD BORGIA 307

Microhabitat Differences among Genetically Similar Species of Partula. JAMES MURRAY, MICHAEL S. JOHNSON, AND BRYAN CLARKE 316

Sex Determining Temperatures in Turtles: a Geographic Comparison. J. J. BULL, R. C. VOGT, AND C. J. MCCOY 326

Heritability of Sex Ratio in Turtles with Environmental Sex Determination. J. J. BULL, R. C. VOGT, AND M. G. BULMER 333

Breeding Synchrony in the Lesser Snow Goose (Anser caerulescens caerulescens). I. Genetic and Environmental Components of Hatch Date Variability and Their Effects on Hatch Synchrony. C. SCOTT FINDLAY AND FRED COOKE 342

The Breeding System of Gilia achilleifolia: Variation in Floral Characteristics and Outcrossing Rate. DANIEL J. SCHOEN 352

Genetic Variation and the Breeding System of Gilia achilleifolia. DANIEL J. SCHOEN 361

Sexual Dimorphism in Aralia nudicaulis L. (Araliaceae). K. S. BAWA, CHRISTINE R. KEEGAN, AND ROBERT H. VOSS 371

Allozyme Variation in Coreopsis nuecensoides and C. nuecensis (Compositae), a Progenitor-Derivative Species Pair. DANIEL J. CRAWFORD AND EDWIN B. SMITH 379

Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in Pitch Pine (Pinus rigida Mill.). RAYMOND P. GURIES AND F. THOMAS LEDIG 387

Extreme Levels of Genetic Variability in Two Red Sea Cerithium Species (Gastropoda: Cerithidae). UZI RITTE AND ALIZA PASHTAN 403

Origin of Inversions and Wallace's Rule of Triads. CARLOS ZAPATA, MAURO SANTOS, AND GONZALO ALVAREZ 407

Pinniped Thermoregulation: Comments On the "Effects of Cold on the Evolution of Pinniped Breeding Systems." D. M. LAVIGNE 409

On the Role of Chromosomal Inversions in Speciation. E. ZOUROS 414

Is Castration an Evolutionary Strategy of Bot Flies? ROBERT M. TIMM AND RICHARD E. LEE, JR 416

Heritability of Blue Tit Tarsus Length fron Normal and Cross-Fostered Broods. ANDRE A. DHONDT 418

Conservation and Evolution. SUBODH K. JAIN 420

Behavioral Ecology for Sophomores. JERRAM L. BROWN 421

Evolution and American Society of Naturalists 1982 Meetings 282

Application for Membership 423

Macroevolution: Pattern and Process Introduction and Background. JEFFREY S. LEVINTON AND DOUGLAS J. FUTUYMA 425

Character Change, Speciation, and the Higher Taxa. SEWALL WRIGHT 427

Evolution and Bifurcation of Developmental Programs. G. OSTER AND P. ALBERCH 444

Macroevolution and the Fossil Record. STEVEN M. STANLEY 460

A Neo-Darwinian Commentary, on Macroevolution. BRIAN CHARLESWORTH, RUSSELL LANDE, AND MONTGOMERY SLATKIN 474

Phenotypic, Genetic, and Environmental Morphological Integration in the Cranium. JAMES M. CHEVERUD 499

Genetic Distance in the Sibling Species Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila simulans and Drosophila mauritiana. A. M. GONZALES, V. M. CABRERA, J. M. LARRUGA, AND A. GULLON 517

Sympatric Genetic Divergence in the Leaf-Mining Insect Liriomyza brassicae (Diptera: Agromyzidae). SALVATORE J. TAVORMINA 523

A Narrow Hybrid Zone Between Closely Related Cricket Species. RICHARD G. HARRISON AND JONATHAN ARNOLD 535

Laboratory Hybridization Between Semi-Incompatible Races of the Arrhenotokous Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). R. DE BOER 553

Environmental Change and the Evolutionary History of the Periwinkle (Littorina littorea) in North America. GEERAT J. VERMEIJ 561

Population Differentiation in Euphydryas editha Butterflies: Larval Adaptation to Different Hosts. MARK D. RAUSHER 581

Mating System Variation in Festuca microstachys. W. T. ADAMS AND R. W. ALLARD 591

Diploid-Tetraploid-Dihaploid Cycles and the Evolution of Panicum maximum Jacq. YVES SAVIDAN AND JEAN PERNES 596

XO Females in the Varying Lemming, Dicrostonyx torquatus: Reproductive Performance and its Evolutionary Significance. EMILY A. GILEVA, ISSAC E. BENENSON, LUIDMILA A. KONOPISTSEVA, VITALIJ F. PUCHKOV, AND IRINA A. MAKARANETS 601

On the Fallacy of Constant Extinction Rates. AMY REED MCCUNE 610

Sex Ratios in the Eastern Bluebird. MICHAEL P. LOMBARDO 615

Promotion of Gene Flow by Transient Individuals in an Otherwise Sedentary Population of Box Turtles (Terrapene carolina triunguis). A. R. KIESTER, C. W. SCHWARTZ, AND E. R. SCHWARTZ 617

Models of Cultural and Genetic Change. J. MAYNARD SMITH AND N. WARREN 620

Evolution of Vertebrate Endocrine Systems. DAVID O. NORRIS 627

Classification of Flowering Plants. G. LEDYARD STEBBINS 628

Expanded Topics in Population Genetics. ELIOT B. SPIESS 628

Darwin for Everyone. PHILIP KITCHER 630

Toward a Comparative Biology. DAVID B. WAKE 631

Announcements 498, 522, 534, 590, 609, 634

Evolution and American Society of Naturalists 1982 Meetings 635

Application for Membership 636

Vol. 36 July 1982 No. 4

Niche Shifts and Competition in Darwin's Finches: Geospiza conirostris and Congeners. B. R. GRANT AND P. R. GRANT 637

The Cichlid Fish of Cuatro Cienegas, Mexico: Direct Evidence of Conspecificity among Distinct Trophic Morphs. IRV KORNFIELD, DAVID C. SMITH, P. S. GAGNON, AND JEFFREY N. TAYLOR 658

Sea Urchin DNA Sequence Variation and Reduced Interspecies Differences of the Less Varible DNA Sequences. J. W. GRULA, T. J. HALL, J. A. HUNT, T. D. GIUGNI, G. J. GRAHAM, E. H. DAVIDSON, AND R. J. BRITTEN 665

A Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Direct and Correlated Response to Selection in the Rat. WILLIAM R. ATCHLEY, J. J. RUTLEDGE, AND DAVID E. COWLEY 677

Neotenic Evolution of Delphinium nudicaule (Ranunculaceae): A Hummingbird-Pollinated Larkspur. EDWARD O. GUERRANT, JR 699

Evolution of the Seed Plants and Inclusive Fitness of Plant Tissues. MARK WESTOBY AND BARBARA RICE 713

The Roles of Polyembryony and Embryo Viability in the Genetic System of Conifers. FRANK C. SORENSEN 725

Environmental and Genetic Determinants of Cleistogamy in a Natural Population of the Grass Danthonia spicata. KEITH CLAY 734

Experimental Ecological Genetics in Plantago. VII. Reproductive Effort in Populations of P. lanceolata L. RICHARD B. PRIMACK AND JANIS ANTONOVICS 742

Patterns of Seed Dispersal and Population Differentiation in Mimulus guttatus. NICKOLAS M. WASER, ROBERT K. VICKERY, JR., AND MARY V. PRICE 753

When Does Outcrossing Occur in a Mass-Flowering Plant? ANDREW G. STEPHENSON 762

Heterozygosity and Developmental Stability Under Sexual and Asexual Breeding Systems. ROBERT C. VRIJENHOEK AND STEVEN LERMAN 768

First Male Sperm Priority in the Bowl and Doily Spider, Frontinella pyramitela (Walckenaer). STEVEN N. AUSTAD 777

Synchrony in the Lesser Snow Goose (Anser caerulescens caerulescens). II. The Adaptive Value of Reproductive Synchrony. C. SCOTT FINDLAY AND FRED COOKE 786

Adaptation of Gray Squirrel Behavior to Autumn Germination by White Oak Acorns. J. F. Fox 800

Population Synchrony in Mayflies: A Predator Satiation Hypothesis. BERNARD W. SWEENEY AND ROBIN L. VANNOTE 810

A Theoretical Analysis of the Effects of Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy on X and Y Chromosome Meiotic Drive. TERRENCE W. LYTTLE 822

A Condition for Group Selection to Prevail Over Counteracting Individual Selection. KENICHI AOKI 832

Evolutionary History of Drosophila buzzatii. II. How Much has Chromosomal Polymorphism Changed in Colonization? A. FONTDEVILA, A. RUIZ, J. OCANA, AND G. ALONSO 843

Genetic Interactions at a Contact Zone of Uroderma bilobatum (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae). JOHN C. HAFNER 852

The Structure of the Hybrid Zone in Uroderma bilobatum (Chiroptera: Phyllostomatidae). N. H. BARTON 863

Phylogenetics: The Theory and Practice of Phylogenetic Systematics. WALTER M. FITCH 867

A Twentieth Century Systema Naturae. DOUGLAS J. FUTUYMA 868

An Argumental Heaven. MARTIN TRACEY 869

At Last: The New Falcolner. D. L. HARTL 870

Natural Selection and Social Behavior. H. RONALD PULLIAM 871

Ecological Genetics of Animal Species. OTTO T. SOLBRIG 872

Application for Membership 875

Vol. 36 September 1982 No. 5

Discontinuous DNA Variation in the Evolution of Plant Species: the Genus Lathyrus. R. K. J. NARAYAN 877

Heterodichogamy in Walnuts: Inheritance and Stable Ratios. SCOTT K. GLEESON 892

Intrasexual Selection and the Segregation of Pollen and Stigmas in Hermaphrodite Plants, Exemplified by Wahlenbergia albomarginata (Campanulaceae). DAVID G. LLOYD AND JOCELYN M. A. YATES 903

Body Shape Metrics and Organismal Evolution. LORRAINE M. CHERRY, SUSAN M. CASE, JOSEPH G. KUNKEL, JEFF S. WYLES, AND ALLAN C. WILSON 914

A Study of Reaction Norms in Natural Populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura. ANAND P. GUPTA AND R. C. LEWONTIN 934

Group Selection: Migration and the Differentiation of Small Populations. MICHAEL J. WADE 949

The Genetic Basis of Altitudinal Variation in the Wood Frog Rana sylvatica. I. An Experimental Analysis of Life History Traits. KEITH A. BERVEN 962

An Experimental Study of Evolution in Heterogeneous Environments: Phenological Adaptation by a Bruchid Beetle. GRAHAM A. MARK 984

Survival of Distasteful Insects after being Attacked by Naive Birds: a Reappraisal of the Theory of Aposematic Coloration Evolving Through Individual Selection. CHRISTER WIKLUND AND TORBJORN JARVI 998

Evolutionary Genetics of Birds. VI. A Reexamination of Protein Divergence using Varied Electrophoretic Conditions. CHARLES F. AQUADRO AND JOHN C. AVISE 1003

Allozyme Frequencies in a Linear Series of Song Dialect Populations. MYRON CHARLES BAKER, DANIEL B. THOMPSON, GREGORY L. SHERMAN, MICHAEL A. CUNNINGHAM, AND DIANA F. TOMBACK 1020

Parental Behavior in Lapwings (Charadriidae) and its Relationships with Clutch Sizes and Mating Systems. JEFFREY R. WALTERS 1030

Origin of Thermal Adaptations in Northern versus Southern Populations of a Unisexual Hybrid Fish. ARTHUR J. BULGER AND R. JACK SCHULTZ 1041

Heat Exchange and Endothermy in Protodonata. MICHAEL L. MAY 1051

On Heterozygosity and the Effective Size of Populations Subject to Size Changes. UZI MOTRO AND GLENYS THOMSON 1059

Behavioral Characters for the Higher Classification of Orb-Weaving Spiders. WILLIAM G. EBERHARD 1067

Why Asymmetric Mating Preferences May Not Show the Direction of Evolution. G. E. E. MOODIE 1096

Parental Infestment per Offspring by a Specialist Bee: Does It Change Seasonally? KAREN STRICKLER 1098

Ecology and Genetics: in Search of a Synthesis. RICHARD HARRISON 1101

Dobzhansky's Genetics of Natural Populations. SEWALL WRIGHT 1102

Application for Membership 1107

Vol. 36 November 1982 No. 6

Perspectives in Evolutionary Theory. G. LEDYARD STEBBINS 1109

Speciation and Macroevolution. ERNST MAYR 1119

The Challenges to Darwinism Since the Last Centennial and the Impact of Molecular Studies. WALTER M. FITCH 1133

A Critical Assessment of Punctuated Equilibria. I. Duration of Taxa. THOMAS J. M. SCHOPF 1144

Genetic Evidence for the Hybrid Origin of the Diploid Plant Stephanomeria diegensis. G. P. GALLEZ AND L. D. GOTTLIEB 1158

Biochemical Population Genetics and Speciation. YU. P. ALTUKHOV 1168

Phenotypic Evolution in a Cretaceous Foraminifer. RICHARD A. REYMENT 1182

Static and Growth Allometry of Morphometric Traits in Randombred House Mice. LARRY LEAMY AND DAVID BRADLEY 1200

The Distribution of Geospiza difficilis in Relation to G. fuliginosa in the Galapagos Islands: Tests of Three Hypotheses. DOLPH SCHLUTER AND PETER R. GRANT 1213

Density Dependent Sexual Selection and Positive Phenotypic Assortative Mating in Natural Populations of the Soldier Beetle, Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus. DENSON KELLY McLAIN 1227

The Impact of Predation on Life History Evolution in Trinidadian Guppies: Genetic Basis of Observed Life History Patterns. DAVID REZNICK 1236

Sex and Variability in the Common Brown Butterfly Heteronympha merope merope (Lepidoptera: Satyrinae). F. KAY PEARSE AND N. D. MURRAY 1251

Niche Breadth and Abundance as Determinants of Genetic Variation in Populations of Mycophagous Drosophillid Flies (Diptera: Drosophilidae). ROBERT C. LACY 1265

Aphid Genotypes, Plant Phenotypes, and Genetic Diversity: A Demographic Analysis of Experimental Data. PHILIP M. SERVICE AND RICHARD E. LENSKI 1276

Population Structure and Evolution in Subterranean Mole Rats. EVIATAR NEVO, GIORA HETH AND AVIGDOR BEILES 1283

Estimates of Fitness in Erodium Populations with Intra- and Interspecific Competition. MARY M. MARTIN AND JAMES HARDING 1290

Breeding Systems and Dispersal-Related Maternal Reproductive Effort of Southern Spanish Bird-Dispersed Plants. CARLOS M. HERRERA 1299

Differential Survivorship of Evolving Chromosomal Species of Mole Rats, Spalax: An Unplanned Laboratory Experiment. EVIATAR NEVO, GIORA HETH AND AVIGDOR BEILES 1315

Similarity of Amino Acids in Nectar and Larval Saliva: The Nutritional Basis for Trophallaxis in Social Wasps. JAMES H. HUNT, IRENE BAKER, AND HERBERT G. BAKER 1318

Seed Dispersal and the Evolution of Dioecism in Flowering Plants-A Response to Herrera. K. S. BAWA 1322

Reply to Bawa. CARLOS M. HERRERA 1325

Like Death and Taxes. JAMES E. RODMAN 1327

Application for Membership 1334

Reviewers of Manuscripts 1331

Education Committee Memo 1330

Subject Index, Volume 36 1332

Table of Contents, Volume 36 i

Extensive Genetic Variation in Mitochondrial DNA's among Geographic Populations of the Deer Mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus. ROBERT A. LANSMAN, JOHN C. AVISE, CHARLES F. AQUADRO, JOHN F. SHAPIRA, AND SUSAN W. DANIEL 1

Increased Number of Alleles Found in Hybrid Populations Due to Intragenic Recombination. G. B. GOLDING AND C. STROBECK 17

Kinetic and Electrophoretic Differentiation of Lactate Dehydrogenases of Teleost Species-Pairs from the Atlantic and Pacific Coasts of Panama. JOHN GRAVES, RICHARD H. ROSEN- BLATT, AND GEORGE N. SOMERO 30

Chromosome Evolution in the Iguanid Lizard Sceloporiis grammicus. I. Chromosome Polymorphisms. JACK W. SITES, JR. 38

Chromosome Evolution in the Iguanid Lizard Sceloporus grammicus. II. Allozyme Variation. JACK W. SITES, JR. AND IRA F. GREENBAUM 54

Comparative Assessment of Modes of Reproductive Isolation among Four Species of Leopard Frogs (Rana pipiens Complex). JOHN S. FROST AND JAMES E. PLATZ 66

Gene Diversity and Genetic Structure in a Narrow Endemic, Torrey Pine (Pinus torreyana Parry ex Carr.). F. THOMAS LEDIG AND M. THOMPSON CONKLE 79

Macrogeographic Variation in Litter Size in Antichinus (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae). ANDREW COCKBURN, ANTHONY K. LEE, AND ROGER W. MARTIN 86

Sexual Selection and Sexual Dimorphism in Mottled Sculpins. JERRY F. DOWNHOWER, LUTHER BROWN, RONALD PEDERSON, AND GLORIA STAPLES 96

Morphological Differentiation in Wing Venation among Broods of 13- and 17-Year Periodical Cicadas. CHRIS SIMON 104

Sex Ratio Evolution under Local Mate Competition in a Parasitic Wasp. JOHN H. WERREN 116

Competition between High and Low Mutating Strains of Escherichia coli. LIN CHAO AND EDWARD C. COX 125

Resource Partitioning among Genotvpes of Drosophila pseudoobscura. CHARLES E. TAYLOR AND CINDRA CONDRA 135

Host Range Evolution: The Shift from Native Legume Hosts to Alfalfa by the Butterfly, Colias philodice eriphyle. BRUCE E. TABASHNIK 150

Coumarins and Caterpillars: A Case for Coevolution. M. BERENBAUM 163

The Kluge-Kerfoot Phenomenon-A Statistical Artifact. F. JAMES ROHLF, AMY JEAN GILMARTIN, AND GENE HART 180

Testing the Constant-Rate Neutral Allele Model with Protein Sequence Data. RICHARD R. HUDSON 203

Little New in the Use of Optimality Theories. F. REED HAINSWORTH 218

Application for Membership 95

Vol. 37 March 1983 No. 2

Phylogenetic Inference from Restriction Endonuclease Cleavage Site Maps with Particular Reference to the Evolution of Humans and the Apes. ALAN R. TEMPLETON 221

Barriers to Gene Exchange between Cosely Related Cricket Species. I. Laboratory Hybridization Studies. RICHARD G. HARRISON 245

Hybrid Inviability and Predominant Survival of Mating Type Minus Progeny in Laboratory Crosses between Two Closely Related Mating Groups of Closterium ehrenbergii. TERUNOBU ICHIMURA 252

Sexual Selection and Communication in a Neotropical Frog, Physalaemus pustulosus. MICHAEL J. RYAN 261

Genetic Evidence of Outbreeding in the Black-tailed Prairie Dog (Cynomys ludovicianus). DAVID W. FOLTZ AND JOHN L. HOOGLAND 273

Influences of Genetic Variability and Maternal Factors on Fetal Growth in White-tailed Deer. E. GUS COTHRAN, RONALD K. CHESSER, MICHAEL H. SMITH, AND PAUL E. JOHNS 282

Relative Fitnesses of Selfed and Outcrossed Progeny in Gilia achilleifolia (Polemoniaceae). DANIEL J. SCHOEN 292

Patterns and Levels of Genetic Variation in Great Basin Bristlecone Pine, Pinus longaeva. RONALD D. HIEBERT AND J. L. HAMRICK 302

A Steep Cline in Pinus muricata. CONSTANCE I. MILLAR 311

Genetic Variability within and among Populations of the Black-tailed Prairie Dog. RONALD K. CHESSER 320

Genetic Changes at the Transferrin Locus in the Red-backed Vole (Clethrionomys gapperi). STEVE MIHOK, WILLIAM A. FULLER, RAYMOND P. CANHAM, AND EUAN C. MCPHEE 332

High Levels of Phenotypic Variability of Metal and Temperature Tolerance in Paramecium. DENNIS NYBERG AND PATRICIA BISHOP 341

Grasshopper Mandibles and the Niche Variation Hypothesis. BRUCE D. PATTERSON 375

Determinants of Multiple Host Use by a Phytophagous Insect Population. MICHAEL C. SINGER 389

Enamel-like Antigens in Hagfish: Possible Evolutionary Significance. H. C. SLAVKIN, EDWARD GRAHAM, MARGARITA ZEICHNER-DAVID, AND WILLIAM HILDEMANN 404

Frequency-dependent Mating? DAVID J. MERRELL 413

Differences between Generations in the Sex Ratio of Aculeate Hymenoptera. H. V. DANKS 414

Problems in the Use of Genetic Similarity to Show Relatedness. ORLANDO A. SCHWARTZ AND KENNETH B. ARMITAGE 417

Testing the Female Mimicry Hypothesis of Delayed Plumage Maturation: A Comment on Procter-Gray and Holmes, SIEVERT ROHWER 421

The Mating System of the Terrestrial Slug Deroceras laeve. RICHARD J. HOFFMAN 423

Plant Speciation: The Classical Approach. WARREN H. WAGNER, JR 426


Evolution for the Tyro. JERRY A. COYNE 431

Darwinism: Love It or Leave It. JEFFREY S. LEVINTON 432

Application for Membership 291

Dobzhansky Prize: Application Information 435

Clonal Diversity and Population Structure in a Reef-Building Coral, Acropora cervicornis: Self-Recognition Analysis and Demographic Interpretation. JOSEPH E. NEIGEL AND JOHN C. AVISE 437

Multilocus Clines. N. H. BARTON 454

Temporal Stability of Lactate Dehydrogenase-A Clines of the High Cockscomb, Anoplarchus purpurescens. CLAY SASSAMAN, RONALD M. YOSHIYAMA AND JOAN D. S. DARLING 472

A Population Genetical Study of the African Mosquito Anopheles marshallii (Theobald). DAVID M. LAMBERT 484

Variation in Development Patterns of Larval Anurans in Temporary Ponds. I. Persistent Variation within a Hyla gratiosa population. JOSEPH TRAVIS 496

Genetic and Environmental Determinants of Wing Polymorphism in the Waterstrider Limnoporus canaliculatus. ANTHONY J. ZERA, DAVID J. INNES AND MARGARET E. SAKS 513

Breeding System and Habitat Effects on Fitness Components in Three Neotropical Costus (Zingiberaceae). DOUGLAS W. SCHEMSKE 523

Intraspecific Genetic Variation and Haplodiploidy, Eusociality, and Polygyny in the Hymenoptera. RUDI C. BERKELHAMER 540

The Accumulation of Genetic Variation in a Parthenogenetic Snail. JAMES A. STODDART 546

Distribution of Sexual and Apomictic Populations of Antennaria parlinii. RANDALL J. BAYER AND G. LEDYARD STEBBINS 555

An Electrophoretic Study of Evolution in Capsicum (Solanaceae). MICHAEL J. McLEOD, SHELDON I. GUTTMAN, W. HARDY ESHBAUGH AND RICHARD E. RAYLE 562

An Immigration-Hybridization Episode in Phlox. DONALD A. LEVIN 575

Interspecific Hybridization and Genetic Divergence in Milkweed Bugs (Oncopeltus: Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). JAMES F. LESLIE AND HUGH DINGLE 583

Hybrid Origin of Polyploidy in Freshwater Snails of the Genus Bulinus (Mollusca: Planorbidae). MICHAEL A. GOLDMAN, PHILIP T. LOVERDE AND C. LARRY CHRISMAN 592

A Natural Experiment in Life-History Evolution: Field Data on the Introduction of Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) to Hawaii. STEPHEN C. STEARNS 601

The Genetic Basis of Differences in Life-History Traits Among Six Populations of Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) that Shared Ancestors in 1905. STEPHEN C. STEARNS 618

Role of Constitutive Heterochromatin in Evolutionary Divergence: Results of Chromosome Banding and Condensation Inhibition Studies in Mus musculus, Mus booduga and Mus dunni. S. SEN AND T. SHARMA 628

Ecological Genetics of Daphnia pulex. MICHAEL LYNCH 636

Quantitative Genetic Response to Environmental Heterogeneity in Tribolium confusum. DAVE F. ZIRKLE AND RUSSEL A. RIDDLE 637

Selection Components Affecting Hemoglobins in Peromyscus maniculatus: a Re-Evaluation. LEE R. G. SNYDER 639

Gametic Selection and Hemoglobin Polymorphisms in Peromyscus maniculatus: a Rejoinder. JOSEPH H. NADEAU AND RAMONE BACCUS 642

A Case of Stress Related Heterozygote Superiority in Nature. PAUL B. SAMOLLOW AND MICHAEL E. SOULE 646

Reproductive Isolation in Sonoran Desert Drosophila. THERESE A. MARKOW, JAMES C. FOGLEMAN AND WILLIAM B. HEED 649

A Cost of Reproduction in a Terrestrial Isopod. MICHAEL S. BRODY, MICHAEL H. EDGAR AND LAWRENCE R. LAWLOR 653

Application for Membership 582

Vol. 37 July 1983 No. 4

Chemical Evolution and Chemosystematics of the Dufour's Gland Secretions of the Lactone-producing Bees (Hymenoptera: Colletidae, Halictidae, and Oxaeidae). JAMES H. CANE 657

Genetic Distance and Evolutionary Relationships in the Drosophila obscura Group. V. M. CABRERA, A. M. GONZALEZ, J. M. LARRUGA, AND A. GULLON 675

Genic Variation and Differentiation of Remnant Natural Populations of the Desert Pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius. BRUCE J. TURNER 690

An Estimate of the Relative Opportunities for Natural and Sexual Selection in a Population of Milkweed Beetles. DAVID E. MCCAULEY 701

Interspecific Variation in the Size of the Nutrient Investment Made by Male Butterflies During Copulation. RONALD L. RUTOWSKI, MARK NEWTON, AND JOHN SCHAEFER 708

Multiple Mating and Female Fitness in Drosophila pseudoobscura. MONTE E. TURNER AND WYATT W. ANDERSON 714

Genetic and Environmental Components of Clutch Size Variance in a Wild Population of Lesser Snow Geese (Anser caerulescens caerulescens). C. SCOTT FINDLAY AND FRED COOKE 724

Self-incompatibility in Central American Heliconia. W. JOHN KRESS 735

Male Fertility and Anisoplethic Population Structure in Tristylous Pontederia cordata (Pontederiaceae). SPENCER C. H. BARRETT, STEVEN D. PRICE, AND JOEL S. SHORE 745

Contrasting Gene Flow Patterns and Genetic Subdivision in Adjacent Populations of Cucumis sativus (Cucurbitaceae). STEVEN N. HANDEL 760

Evolution of an All-female Fish, Menidia clarkhubbsi (Atherinidae). ANTHONY A. ECHELLE, ALICE F. ECHELLE, AND CARL D. CROZIER 772

Reduction of Gene Flow Due to the Partial Sterility of Heterozygotes for a Chromosome Mutation. I. Studies on a "Neutral" Gene not Linked to the Chromosome Mutation in a


Clonal Diversity and Evolutionary Dynamics in a Diploid Breeding Complex of Unisexual Fishes (Poecilia). BRUCE J. TURNER, JOSEPH S. BALSANO, PAUL J. MONACO, AND ELLEN M. RASCH 798

A Coadapted Trophic Niche in Two Species of Crustaceae (Isopods): Asellus aquaticus (L.) and Proasellus coxalis Dolff. LORETO ROSSI, ALBERTO BASSET, AND LOREDANA NOBILE 810

Convergence of Ecological Processes Between Independently Evolved Competitive Dominants: a Tunicate-mussel Comparison. R. T. PAINE AND T. H. SUCHANEK 821

Pattern and Chance in the Structure of Model and Natural Communities. TED J. CASE AND RON SIDELL 832

Polymorphism of Alcohol Dehydrogenase (ADH) in a Winery Cellar Population of Drosophila melanogaster: Gene Frequency Association with Temperature and Genotypic Differences in Progeny Production. STEPHEN W. McKECHNIE AND JOHN A. McKENZIE 850

On the Relationship Between Average Copulation Duration and Insemination Reaction in the Genus Drosophila. BRUCE GRANT 854

Unorthodoxies in the First Formulation of Natural Selection. STEPHEN JAY GOULD 856

Solution in Search of a Problem. WALTER F. EANES 859

Mapping Genes to Phenotypes, or the Rules that Generate Form. PERE ALBERCH 861

Disease and Evolution. JAMES F. CROW 863

Biology of Cave Organisms. JAMES H. BROWN 865

Biogeographical Theory. DONALD R. STRONG 867

A History of Biology: Diversity, Evolution, Inheritance. MALCOLM JAY KOTTLER 868

The Economics of Sex. JOHN MAYNARD SMITH 872

Announcements 744, 874, 875

Application for Membership 876

Vol. 37 September 1983 No. 5

The Heritability of External Morphology in Darwin's Ground Finches (Geospiza) on Isla Daphne Major, Galapagos. PETER T. BOAG 377

Quantitative Genetics of Development: Genetic Correlations among Age-specific Trait Values and the Evolution of Ontogeny. JAMES M. CHEVERUD, J. J. RUTLEDGE, AND WILLIAM R. ATCHLEY 895

Morphological Variation in the Neotropical Salamander Genus Bolitoglossa. PERE ALBERCH 906

Continental Patterns of Morphological Variation in a South American Sparrow. PAUL HANDFORD 920

Structural Relationships between Spines and Lateral Plates in Threespine Stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). T. E. REIMCHEN 931

Breeding System, Genetic Variability, and Response to Selection in Plectritis (Valerianaceae). KEN CAREY 947

Pollen-Pistil Relationships in the Polemoniaceae. UZI PLITMANN AND DONALD A. LEVIN 957

The Influence of Paleozoic Ovule and Cupule Morphologies on Wind Pollination. KARL J. NIKLAS 968

Sexual Selection in the Lovebug, Plecia nearctica: the Role of Male Choice. CRAIG S. HIEBER AND JAMES A. COHEN 987

The Evolution of Aposematic Coloration in Distasteful Prey: an Individual Selection Model. BIRGITTA SILLEN-TULLBERG AND EDWIN H. BRYANT 993

A Comparison of Theoretical and Electrophoretic Assessments of Genetic Structure in Populations of the House Sparrow (Passer domesticus). ROBERT C. FLEISCHER 1001

Genetic Differentiation within Subdivided Populations of Formica Ants. PEKKA PAMILO 1010

Genetic Variation for Host Preference within and among Populations of Drosophila tripunctata. JOHN JAENIKE AND DAVID GRIMALDI 1023

DNA/DNA Hybridization Studies of Muroid Rodents: Symmetry and Rates of Molecular Evolution. ELISE BROWNELL 1034

Larval Adaptations and Patterns of Brachiopod Diversity in Space and Time. JAMES W. VALENTINE AND DAVID JABLONSKI 1052

The Role of Body Size in the Assembly of West Indian Bird Communities. TED J. CASE, JOHN FAABORG, AND RON SIDELL 1062

Homage to Santa Anita: Thermal Sensitivity of Sprint Speed in Agamid Lizards. PAUL E. HERTZ, RAYMOND B. HUEY, AND EVIATAR NEVO 1075

A Pitfall in Using Painted Insects in Studies of Protective Coloration. G. P. WALDBAUER AND J. G. STERNBURG 1085

Costs of Thermoregulation in Adult Pinnipeds. RAYMOND PIEROTTI AND DAVID PIEROTTI 1087

Why are Juveniles Smaller than Their Parents? NORMAN C. ELLSTRAND 1091

Biology, Culture, and Punctuationism. MATT CARTMILL 1095

Dealing with Creationism. DUANE E. JEFFERY 1097

Application for Membership 1033

Vol. 37 November 1983 No. 6

Genetic Basis of Differences in Genital Morphology among Three Sibling Species of Drosophila. JERRY A. COYNE 1101

Genetic Differentiation During Speciation in the Helianthus debilis Complex. RICHARD P. WAIN 1119

Molecular Variation in Insular Endemic Drosophila Species of the Macaronesian Archipelagos. A. M. GONZALEZ, V. M. CABRERA, J. M. LARRUGA, AND A. GULLON 1128

A Molecular Phylogenetic Perspective on the Origins of a Lowland Tropical Salamander Fauna. II. Patterns of Morphological Evolution. ALLAN LARSON 1141

Quantitative Analysis of Karyotype Alteration and Species Differentiation in Mammals. HIROTAMI T. IMAI 1154

A Simple Mendelian Model for 13- and 17-Year Life Cycles of Periodical Cicadas, with Historical Evidence of Hybridization between Them. MONTE LLOYD, GENE KRITSKY, AND CHRIS SIMON 1162

Temperature Effects on Life History Variation in Drosophila simulans. P. A. MURPHY, J. T. GIESEL, AND M. N. MANLOVE 1181

The Inheritance of Quantitative Fitness Traits in Guppies, Poecilia reticulata (Pisces: Peociliidae). JAMES A. FARR 1193

The Measurement of Selection on Correlated Characters RUSSELL LANDE AND STEVAN J. ARNOLD 1210

The Relation of Growth to Heterozygosity in Pitch Pine. F. THOMAS LEDIG, RAYMOND P. GURIES, AND BARBARA A. BONEFELD 1227

Gene Flow Distances in Natural Populations of Tetraopes tetraophthalmus. DAVID E. MCCAULEY 1239

Density-Dependent Pollinator Foraging, Flowering Phenology, and Temporal Pollen Dispersal Patterns in Linanthus bicolor. JOHANNA SCHMITT 1247

Pollen Dispersal by Hummingbirds and Butterflies: a Comparative Study of Two Lowland Tropical Plants. C. J. WEBB AND K. S. BAWA 1258

Floral Variation and Sexual Differentiation in Muntingia calabura (Elaeocarpaceae), a Species with Hermaphrodite Flowers. K. S. BAWA AND C. J. WEBB 1271

Mating Behavior and the Evolution of Drosophila mauritiana. HUGH M. ROBERTSON 1283

Behavioral Reproductive Isolation among Populations of the Rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. TERRY W. SNELL AND CRAIG A. HAWKINSON 1294

Rare Male Mating Disadvantage in Drosophila melanogaster. JEROME R. PETERSON AND DAVID J. MERRELL 1306

Sexual Reproduction: an Adaptation Reducing Parent-Offspring Contagion. WILLIAM R. RICE 1317

The Developmental Genetic Basis of Organismal Evolution. DOUGLAS R. CAVENER 1321

A Unique Approach to the Evolution of Sex. DAVID E. MCCAULEY 1323

Current Problems in Sociobiology: an Adaptationist Review. MARY JANE WESTEBERHARD 1325

Announcements 1153, 1180, 1192, 1238

Application for Membership 1327

Reviewers of Manuscripts 1337

Subject Index, Volume 37 1328

Table of Contents, Volume 37

Vol. 38 January 1984 No. 1

Ontogeny and Phylogeny in Horse Skull Evolution. LEONARD RADINSKY 1

Distance Methods for Inferring Phylogenies: a Justification. JOSEPH FELSENSTEIN 16

An Apparent Disjunction Between the Evolution of Form and Substance in the Genus Tetrahymena. NORMAN E. WILLIAMS 25

A Comparison Between Quantitative and Biochemical Variation in the Wild Barley Hordeum murinum. BARBARA E. GILES 34

Conditional Neutrality of Polygene Effects. FRED B. SCHNEE AND JAMES N. THOMPSON, JR 42

Static and Evolutionary Allometry of Osteometric Traits in Selected Lines of Rats. LARRY LEAMY AND WILLIAM ATCHLEY 47

Genetic Divergence Under Uniform Selection. 1. Similarity Among Populations of Drosophila melanogaster in Their Responses to Artificial Selection for Modifiers of ciD. FREDERICK M. COHEN 55

Evidence for Selective Fruit Production in Asclepias. SUSAN STONE BOOKMAN 72

On the Evolution of Parthenogenesis: a Genetic Representation of the "Cost of Meiosis." MARCY K. UYENOYAMA 87

Experimental Studies of the Evolutionary Significance of Sexual Reproduction. I. A Test of the Frequency-Dependent Selection Hypothesis. JANIS ANTONOVICS AND NORMAN C. ELLSTRAND 103

Inbreeding Depression and Proximity-Dependent Crossing Success in Phlox drummondii. DONALD A. LEVIN. 116

Changes in Corolla Color and Other Horal Characteristics in Cryptantha humilis (Boraginaceae): Cues to Discourage Pollinators? BRENDA B. CASPER AND TIMOTHY R. LA PINE 128

Kin-Recognition and the Spatial Distribution of Larvae of the Bryozoan Bugula neritina (L.). MICHAEL J. KEOUGH 142

Deferred Reproduction as a Response to Sexual Selection in a Coral Reef Fish: a Test of the Life Historical Consequences. ROBERT R. WARNER 148

Distributional and Ecological Differentiation Between Asexual Gynogenetic Planthoppers and Related Sexual Species of the Genus Muellerianella (Homoptera, Delphacidae). C. J. H. BOOIJ AND J. A. GULDEMOND 163

Histocompatibility in Hawaiian and Polynesian Populations of the Parthenogenetic Gecko Lepidodactylus lugubris. ORLANDO CUELLAR 176

The Genetic Structure of a Cyclical Parthenogen. MICHAEL LYNCH 186

Fighting and Assessment in Harpohittacus Scorpionflies. RANDY THORNHILL 204

Genetic Evidence for Allopatric and Sympatric Differentiation Among Color Morphs of a Lake Malawi Cichlid Fish. K. R. McKAYE, T. KOCHER, P. REINTHAL, R. HARRISON, AND I. KORNFIELD 215

Long-Term Maintenance of Size Variation in Populations of Centris pallida (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae). JOHN ALCOCK 220

Genetic Variation and Divergence in a Disjunct Phlox. DONALD A. LEVIN 223

Biological Interactions. PAUL R. EHRLICH 226

Biogeographic Roots. ARTHUR C. GIBSON 228

The Rebirth of Biogeography. S. DAVID WEBB 229

Application for Membership 231

Evolution Society News 232

Vol. 38 March 1984 No. 2

Primary and Secondary Transition Zones in Speciation and Population Differentiation: a Phylogenetic Analysis of Range Expansion. R. S. THORPE 233

Coding Morphometric Characters for Constructing Distance Wagner Networks. R. S. THORPE 244

Female-Biased Sex Ratios in Social Insects Lacking Morphological Castes. JOAN E. STRASSMANN 256

Adaptive Significance of Delayed Plumage Maturation in Male Northern Orioles. NANCY J. FLOOD 267

Life History Variation in a Freshwater Copepod: Evidence from Population Crosses. J. DAVID ALLAN 280

Life History Adaptation to Demographic Regime in Laboratory- Cultured Tisbe furcata (Copepoda, Harpacticoida). MARC BERGMANS 292

Measuring the Cost of Reproduction. I. The Correlation Structure of the Life Table of a Plankton Rotifer. GRAHAM BELL 300

Measuring the Cost of Reproduction. II. The Correlation Structure of the Life Tables of Five Freshwater Invertebrates. GRAHAM BELL 314

Sexual Selection on Body Size, Territory and Plumage Variables in a Population of Darwin's Finches. TREVOR D. PRICE 327

Annual Variation of Survival Advantage of Large Juvenile Side-Blotched Lizards, Uta stansburiana: Its Causes and Evolutionary Significance. GARY W. FERGUSON AND STANLEY F. FOX 342

Evolution in a Seasonal Environment: Simplicity Lost? ALAN HASTINGS 350

Evolutionary Landscapes for Complex Selection. JAMES W. CURTSINGER 359

Heritability Estimates for Age and Length at Maturity in Two Populations of Mosquitofish that Shared Ancestors in 1905. STEPHEN C. STEARNS 368

Morphological Variation in Frog Pectoral Girdles: Testing Altematives to a Traditional Adaptive Explanation. SHARON B. EMERSON 376

Genic Diversity and Population Genetic Structure of Triturus vulgaris (Urodela, Salamandridae). M. L. KALEZIC AND N. TUCIC. 389

Direct Evidence that the Ilyodon Morphs are a Single Biological Species. THADDEUS A. GRUDZIEN AND BRUCE J. TURNER 402

Evolutionarily Stable Reproductive Allocations in Heterostylous Plants. PETER D. TAYLOR 408

Mutational Load in Clonal Plants: a Study of Two Fern Species. EDWARD J. KLELOWSKI, JR 417

Differences in Fitness Between Seedlings Derived from Cleistogamous and Chasmogamous Flowers in Impatiens capensis. DONALD M. WALLER 427

Is a Jack-of-All-Temperatures a Master of None? RAYMOND B. HUEY AND PAUL E. HERTZ 441

Allozymes and Song Dialects: a Reassessment. ROBERT M. ZINK AND GEORGE F. BARROWCLOUGH 444


Increased Density Does Not Increase Remating Frequency in Laboratory Populations of Drosophila melanogaster. MARK H. GROMKO AND PAMELA D. GERHART 451

A Comparison of Electrophoretic and Morphometric Variability in the Face Fly, Musca autumnalis. EDWIN H. BRYANT 455

Molecular Evolution: the Coming of Age. MICHAEL T. CLEGG 459

Promethean Fire: Reflections on the Origin of Mind. LAWRENCE B. SLOBODKIN 461

Interaction and Coevolution. HENRY F. HOWE 463

Announcements 255, 279, 458

Application for Membership 407

The Limits to Life History Evolution in Daphnia. MICHAEL LYNCH 465

Life History Traits and Natural Selection for Small Body Size in a Population of Darwin's Finches. TREVOR D. PRICE AND PETER R. GRANT 483

Can Uniform Selection Retard Random Genetic Divergence Between Isolated Conspecific Populations? FREDERICK M. COHAN 495

Still Another Attempt to Achieve Assortative Mating by Disruptive Selection in Drosophila. ELIOT B. SPIESS AND CHARLES M. WILKE 505

Artificial Selection on a Fitness-Component in Drosophila melanogaster. MICHAEL R. ROSE 516

Quantitative Genetic Analysis of Temperature Regulation in Mus musculus. II. Diallel Analysis of Individual Traits. CAROL BECKER LYNCH AND D. S. SULZBACH 527

Quantitative Genetic Analysis of Temperature Regulation in Mus musculus. III. Dialiel Analysis of Correlations Between Traits. D. S. SULZBACH AND CAROL BECKER LYNCH 541

Measurement of the Relative Importance of Individual Selection and Kin Selection Among Females of the Genus Macaca. JOAN B. SILK 553


The Effect of Mutagenesis on Competitive Ability in Drosophila. ELLEN M. WIJSMAN 571

Tradeoffs in Performance on Different Hosts: Evidence from Within- and Between-Site Variation in the Beetle Deloyala guttata. MARK D. RAUSHER 582

The Evolution of Habitat Preference in Subdivided Populations. MARK D. RAUSHER 596

The Evolution of Cooperative Breeding by Delayed Reciprocity and Queuing for Favorable Social Positions. R. HAVEN WILEY AND KERRY N. RABENOLD 609

Ecological Causes of Sexual Dimorphism. MONTGOMERY SLATKIN 622

Queen-Worker Conflict and Eusocial Evolution in a Polygynous Ant Species. JOAN M. HERBERS 631

Origin and Expression of an Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene Duplication in the Genus Drosophila. PHILIP BATTERHAM, GEOFFREY K. CHAMBERS, WILLIAM T. STARMER, AND DAVID T. SULLIVAN 644

Estimation of the Rate of Glycerol 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Evolution in Higher Vertebrates. ROBERT A. BALLAS, JOHN S. GARAVELLI, AND HAROLD B. WHITE III 658

Lateral Plate Morph Variation in Califomia Populations of the Threespine Stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeaius. JEFFREY V. BAUMGARTNER AND MICHAEL A. BELL 665

Genetic Structure and Change in Natural Populations of Drosophila robusts: Systematic Inversion and Inversion Association Frequency Shifts in the Great Smoky Mountains. WILLIAM J. ETGES 675

The Nature of Genetic Variation for Species Formation. MICHAEL B. COULTHART, LORENZ R. RHOMBERG. AND RAMA S. SINGH. 689

Frequency-Dependent Mating? Yes. An Answer to D. J. Merrell. CLAUDINE PETIT 692

Frequency-Dependent Selection Arising from Inappropriate Fitness Estimation. GONZALO ALVAREZ, MAURO SANTOS, AND CARLOS ZAPATA 696

A Comment on Fitness Estimation. FREDDY BRUCE CHRISTIANSEN 699

On the Measurement of Total and Sexual Selection: a Reply to Christiansen.GONZALO ALVAREZ, MAURO SANTOS, AND CARLOS ZAPATA 701

Drosophila of the Desert. JOHN JAENIKE 703

Revenge of the Ugly Duckling. MARK KIRKPATRICK 704

The Evolution of Insect Mating Systems. MICHAEL J. WADE 706

Announcements . 482, 630, 643

Evolution Society Meetings 674

Application for Membership 702

Vol. 38 July 1984 No. 4

On the Measurement of Natural and Sexual Selection: Theory. STEVAN J. ARNOLD AND MICHAEL J. WADE 709

On the Measurement of Natural and Sexual Selection: Applications. STEVAN J. ARNOLD AND MICHAEL J. WADE 720

Sex Chromosomes and the Evolution of Sexual Dimorphism. WILL]AM R. RICE 735

The Expected Fixation Rate of Chromosomal Inversions. RUSSELL LANDE 743

Evolutionary Change of the Chromosomal Polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster Populations. YUTAKA INOUE, TAISHU WATANABE, AND TAKAO K. WATANABE 753

Evolution by Yin Selection: A Quantitative Genetic Model Illustrated by Maternal Performance in Mice. JAMES M. CHEVERUD 766

Inbreeding and the Evolution of Altruism Under Kin Selection: Effects on Relatedness and Group Structure. MARCY K. UYENOYAMA 778

Influence of Flower Color Polymorphism on Genetic Transmission in a Natural Population of the Common Morning Glory, Ipomoea purpurea. BARBARA A. BROWN AND MICHAEL T. CLEGG 796

The Evolution of Self-Pollination in Granite Outcrop Species of Arenaria (Caryophyllaceae). I. Morphological Correlates. ROBERT WYATT 804

Population Structure and Local Selection in Impatiens pallida (Balsaminaceae), a Selfing Annual. DOUGLAS W. SCHEMSKE 817

The Effects of Individual Variation in Physiological and Morphological Traits on the Reproductive Capacity of the Common Cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. MARTIN J. LECHOWICZ 833

The Comparison of Phenotypic Plasticity and Genetic Variation in Populations of the Grass Danthonia spicata. SAMIJEL M. SCHEINER AND CHARLES J. GOODNIGHT 845

Ecological Correlates of Morphological Evolution in a Darwin's Finch, Geospiza difficilis. DOLPH SCHLUTER AND PETER R. GRANT 856

Coevolution in Ecosystems: Red Queen Evolution or Stasis? NILS CHR. STENSETH AND J. MAYNARD SMITH 870

The Quantitative Genetics of Polyphagy in an Insect Herbivore. I. Genotype-Environment Interaction in Larval Performance on Different Host Plant Species. SARA VIA 881

The Quantitative Genetics of Polyphagy in an Insect Herbivore. II. Genetic Correlations in Larval Performance Within and Among Host Plants. SARA VIA 896

Genetic Changes Coinciding with the Colonization of California by the Walnut Husk Fly Rhagoletis completa. STEWART H. BERLOCHER 906

Application for Membership 895

Vol. 38 September 1984 No. 5

Morphological and Phylogenetic Relations Among the Darwin's Finches. DOLPH SCHLUTER 921

Characterization of Mitochondrial DNA Variability in a Hybrid Swarm between Subspecies of Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). JOHN C. AVISE, ELDREDGE BERMINGHAM, Louis G. KESSLER, AND NANCY C. SAUNDERS 931

Population Structure in Black Flies: Allozymic and Morphological Estimates for Prosimulium mixtum and P. fuscum (Diptera: Simuliidae). THOMAS P. SNYDER AND MARY C. LINTON 942

Interactions between the Amylase and Adipose Chromosomal Regions of Drosophila melanogaster. ANDREW G. CLARK AND WINIFRED W. DOANE. 957

Sperm Predominance among Drosophila pseudoobscura karyotypes. MONTE E. TURNER AND WYATT ANDERSON 983

Selection for Delayed Senescence in Drosophila melanogaster. LEO S. LUCKINBILL, ROBERT ARKING, MICHAEL G. CLARE, WILLIAM C. CIROCCO, AND STEVEN A. BUCK 996

Laboratory Evolution of Postponed Senescence in Drosophila melanogaster. MICHAEL R. ROSE 1004

Sexual Selection and Sexual Differences in Mormon Crickets (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae, Anabrus simplex). DARRYL T. GWYNNE 1011

Differences in Survivorship, Development Rate and Fertility between the Longwinged and Wingless Morphs of the Waterstrider, Limnoporus canaliculatus. ANTHONY J. ZERA 1023

The Manifestation of Phenotypic Selection at Constituent Loci. I. Stabilizing Selection. R. B. CAMPBELL 1033

Changes in Group-Selected Traits that Occur when Group Selection is Relaxed. MICHAEL J. WADE 1039

Group Selection: the Interaction of Local Deme Size and Migration in the Differentiation of Small Populations. MICHAEL J. WADE AND DAVID E. McCAULEY 1047

Natural Selection in Experimental Populations of Reef-Building Corals (Scleractinia). D. C. POTTS 1059

Dynamics of Morphological Differentiation: Temporal Impact of Gene Flow in Pocket Gopher Populations. MARGARET F. SMITH AND JAMES L. PATTON 1079

Brain Size, Adaptation and Heterochrony in Geomyoid Rodents. MARK S. HAFNER AND JOHN C. HAFNER 1088

On the Evolutionary Reversal of Competitive Dominance. CRAIG M. PEASE 1099

Molecular Evolution over the Mutational Landscape. JOHN H. GILLESPIE 1116

Outcrossing and Pollinator Limitation of Fruit Set: Breeding Systems of Neotropical Inga Trees (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae). SUZANNE KOPTUR 1130

Possible Prezygotic Reproductive Isolation in Sea Urchins Separated by the Isthmus of Panama. H. A. LESSIOS 1144

Pollen-Ovule Ratios and Hermaphrodite Sexual Allocation Strategies. DAVID C. QUELLER 1148

Population Density, Outcrossing Rate, and Heterozygote Superiority in Ponderosa Pine. MICHAEL A. FARRIS AND JEFFRY B. MITTON 1151

Bird Versus Mammal Morphological Diversity. MARK S. HAFNER, J. V. REMSEN, JR., AND SCOTT M. LANYON 1154

Morphological Distance: an Encounter between Two Perspectives in Evolutionary Biology. A. C. WILSON, J. G. KUNKEL, AND J. S. WYLES 1156

Development and Evolution: a Report. JOSEPH FRANKEL 1160

Evolution of Sex Determining Mechanisms: a Review of Fact and Theory. DONALD H. FEENER, JR 1163

Dobzhansky Prize Awarded 995

Application for Membership 1058

Vol. 38 November 1984 No. 6

A Quantitative Genetic Analysis of Brain and Body Size Associations, their Origin and Ontogeny: Data from Mice. WILLIAM R. ATCHLEY, BRUCE RISKA, LUCI A. P. KOHN, A. ALISON PLUMMER, AND J. J. RUTLEDGE 1165

Insensitivity of Brain Growth to Selection of Four-Week Body Mass in Japanese Quail. ROBERT E. RICKLEFS AND HENRY L. MARKS 1180

Reaction Norms of Development Rate among Diploid Clones of the Parthenogenetic Cockroach Pycnoscelus surinamensis. E. DAVIS PARKER, JR 1186

Evolution in a Paedomorphic Lineage. I. An Electrophoretic Analysis of the Mexican Ambystomatid Salamanders. H. BRADLEY SHAFFER 1194

Evolution in a Paedomorphic Lineage. II. Allometry and Form in the Mexican Ambystomatid Salamanders. H. BRADLEY SHAFFER 1207

The Genus: a Macroevolutionary Problem. CLIFF A. LEMEN AND PATRICIA W. FREEMAN 1219

Speciation in the Genus Crimia (Anura: Myobatrachidae) in Southem Australia: a Phylogenetic Analysis of Allozyme Data Supporting Endemic Speciation in Southwestern Australia. WILLIAM BARENDSE 1238

Disruptive Selection on Habitat Preference and the Evolution of Reproductive Isolation: a Simulation Study. WILLIAM R. RICE 1251

The Effect of Experimental Design on Female Receptivity to Remating and its Impact on Reproductive Success in Drosophila malanogaster. MARY ELLEN A. NEWPORT AND MARK H. GROMKO 1261

Sperm Dependence of Female Receptivity to Remating in Drosophila melanogaster. MARK H. GROMKO, MARY ELLEN A. NEWPORT, AND MARIA G. KORTIER 1273

A Quantitative Genetic Model for the Origin of Mating Preferences. I. LORRAINE HEISLER 1283

Mating-Temperature Range in Drosophila. EDGAR M. SCHNEBEL AND JOSEPH GROSSFIELD 1296

The Genetic Consequences of Contrasting Breeding Systems in Plectritis (Valerianaceae). CHARLES R. LAYTON AND FRED R. GANDERS 1308

Gynodioecy in Plantago lanceolata L. IV. Fitness Components of Sex Types in Different Life Cycle Stages. JOS M. M. VAN DAMME AND WILKE VAN DELDEN 1326

On the Evolution of Embryo Abortion in the Herbaccous Perennial Cryptantha flava. BRENDA B. CASPER 1337

Temporal Shifts in Gene Row and Seed Set: Evidence from an Experimental Population of Cucumis sativus. STEVEN N. HANDEL AND JUDITH LE VIE MISHKIN 1350

Estimating F-Statistics for the Analysis of Population Structure. B. S. WEIR AND C. CLARK COCKERHAM 1358

Pattern Beneath the Chaos: the Effect of Recruitment on Genetic Patchiness in an Intertidal Limpet. MICHAEL S. JOHNSON AND ROBERT BLACK 1371

Faunal Tumover and Development of Fossil Avifaunas in South America. FRANCOIS VUILLEUMIER 1384

Dispersal Rates of Species of the Drosophila obscura Group: Implications for Population Structure. CHARLES E. TAYLOR, JEFFREY R. POWELL, VLADIMIR KEKIC, MARKO ANDJELKOVIC, AND HANS BURLA 1397

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