Photosynthesis Equation

Photosynthesis Equation

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The equation for photosynthesis is

$ce{6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy -> C6H12O6 + 6O2}$

My confusion rests in the following: during the photolysis (water-splitting) step of the light reactions that occur in Photosystem II, water gets split into 2 H+ ions, 2 electrons (which enter the photosystem), and one Oxygen ion. But if Oxygen ($O_2$) is comprised of two oxygen ions covalently bonded to each other, doesn't this mean that

$ce{6H2O -> 3O2}$ ?

Could someone please clarify this for me?

Equation you have mentioned is balanced chemical equation. In reality these are series of Redox reactions, major two as follows,

Oxidation of oxygen from water in presence of light (energy from photon),

$ 2H_2O xrightarrow{Photons} O_2 + 4H^*$

Ions produced from above reaction reduces carbon dioxide ,

$4H^* + CO_2 ightarrow (CH_2O) + H_2O$

So both equations combined, we can write general form as

$nCO_2 + nH_2O xrightarrow{Photons} (CH_2O)n + nO_2$

In simple words to answer your doubt, in final equation 2 oxygen molecule coming from per 2 $H_2O$ molecules and 1 coming from per $CO_2$ molecule. Hence final balanced equation is

$6CO_2 + 6H_2O xrightarrow{Photons} 6(CH_2O) + 6O_2$

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The word photosynthesis comes from two Greek words: photo, meaning “light”, and synthesis, meaning “put together.” Looking at that those two roots, we have a good idea of what happens during the chemical process of photosynthesis: plants put together water and carbon dioxide with light to create glucose and oxygen.

In this article, we’ll break down what photosynthesis is, why photosynthesis is important, and discuss the chemical equation for photosynthesis: what it is and what each part of it means.

Balanced Photosynthesis Chemical Equation

Carbon dioxide, water, and radiant energy is present on the reactant side, whereas on the other side are the products of photosynthesis process, i.e., glucose and oxygen. Putting this in a simplified formula, the following equation represents this process.

A chemical reaction is said to be balanced, when both sides of the photosynthesis equation (reactants and products) have the same number of molecules for each of the elements.

Needless to mention, the above formula for photosynthesis is not balanced, as there is only one atom of carbon in the reactant side, while there are 6 carbon atoms in the product side. As you try to balance the above equation, put 6 in front of the carbon dioxide molecule, after which the resulting equation will be:

Now, the number of carbon atoms is 6 in both sides. The remaining atoms to be balanced are hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen has only 2 atoms on the reactant side, and 12 atoms on the product side.

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Thus, in order to balance the number of hydrogen atoms, place 6 in front of the water molecule in the reactant side. With this step, the partly balanced photosynthesis formula is represented by:

With this step, the numbers of carbon and hydrogen atoms are balanced on both sides of the photosynthesis equation. Thus, the final step is to balance the number of oxygen atoms.

Carefully calculate the number of oxygen atoms on the reactant side i.e., 12 atoms from carbon dioxide (6 CO 2 ) and 6 atoms from water (6 H 2 O) form a total of 18 atoms. In the product side, there are 6 atoms from glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) and 2 atoms from oxygen molecule (O 2 ) forming a total of 8 atoms.

And to balance the deficit atoms on the product side, put 6 in front of the oxygen molecule:

So, this is how you can balance the photosynthesis equation in a step-by-step manner. It shows that six molecules each of carbon dioxide and water combine together in the presence of light energy, so as to form one glucose molecule and six oxygen molecules.

Related Posts

Photosynthesis equation is the simplified representation of this process in a chemical reaction format, which occurs in chloroplasts. Read this article to gain more information about such reactions.

Read on to know more about the steps of photosynthesis, one of nature's most fascinating occurrence.

It is extremely important to know the meaning and process of photosynthesis, irrespective of the fact that whether it the part of one's curriculum or not. The diagram given in&hellip

Photosynthesis Equation - Biology

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The general equation for photosynthesis is:

Light reactions

The light reactions phase takes place in the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast, and its purpose is to covert light energy to chemical energy (ATP and NADPH) with the help of the chlorophyll pigment.

Chlorophyll molecules are situated along protein complexes called photosystems I and II. As it absorbs the light energy, it sets off a reaction of linear electron flow, passing of an electrons through pigment molecules. Light first strikes a pigment molecule and the energy travels to the reaction-centre complex of the photosystem II(PS680). There, a special pair of chlorophyll molecules pushes out an electron to the primary acceptor of photosystem II. The resulting pair of special pigment molecules is a PS680+, the strongest biological oxidizing agent known. In order to fill up the missing electron, an enzyme catalyses water molecule into oxygen atom (which immediately combines with another oxygen atom and is given off), protons (pumped into the thylakoid lumen), and electrons, send one by one to replace the missing PS680+ ones.

Once passed to the primary acceptor, electrons are sent via a chain of electron carries (similar to those in cellular respiration) to the photosystem I. During the electron chain stage protons are pumped into the thylakoid lumen, providing proton-motive force for chemiosmotic synthesis of ATPvia ATP synthase.

Meanwhile, in the photosystem I, energy again is passed through chlorophyll molecules into another reaction centre complex (PS700, the reaction centre of photosystem I), which pushes an electron to the primary acceptor of the photosystem I, resulting in PS700+. This PS700+ complex can now act as an electron receptor for the electrons coming from photosystem II.

From the primary acceptor of the photosystem I, electrons pass through another electron carrier chain (but with no protons and thus ATP generated). At the end of the chain, the enzyme NADP+ reductase catalyses a reduction of NADP+ to NADPH. The reaction requires two electrons from the linear electron flow, and one proton from the stroma, (NADP+ is very similar to NAD+ present in cellular respiration).

The NADPH and ATP generated during the light reactions phase are used in the Calvin cycle to synthesize sugar.

The Calvin cycle

Similarly to the citric cycle, the Calvin cycle regenerates the starting material after “processing” the molecules that pass through the cycle. This phase of photosynthesis is anabolic, and builds three-carbon sugars gluceraldehyde-3-phosphates, each from three molecules of carbon dioxide. The Calvin cycle is divided into three phases:

In a series of reactions, a phosphate group from ATP is attached to the 3-phosphoglycerate, which is then reduced by NADPH to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P). Each carbon dioxide molecule produces 2molecules of G3P, but the cycle needs to run three times (it needs to use 3 molecules of CO2) and produce a total of 6molecules of G3P to continue. One molecule of G3P then leaves the cycle, and can be used by the plant cells.

Photosynthesis Equation - Biology

A Primer on Photosynthesis and the Functioning of Cells


The net process of photosynthesis is described by the following equation:

This equation simply means that carbon dioxide from the air and water combine in the presence of sunlight to form sugars oxygen is released as a by-product of this reaction.

Light Reactions and the Calvin Cycle

Photosynthesis in a Chloroplast

Some terms and definitions:

  • H2O is water.
  • O2 is oxygen.
  • CO2 is carbon dioxide.
  • ATP is adenosine triphosophate.
  • PGA is a phosphoglyceric acid, a three carbon (C-C-C) organic acid.
  • Grana are the stacked membranes that contain chlorophyll.
  • RuBP is the five carbon (C-C-C-C-C) sugar-phosphate.
  • Rubisco is the enzyme ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. It is the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of CO2 to the organic acid, PGA. It is the most abundant enzyme on Earth.

During the process of photosynthesis, light penetrates the cell and passes into the chloroplast. The light energy is intercepted by chlorophyll molecules on the granal stacks. Some of the light energy is converted to chemical energy. During this process, a phosphate is added to a molecule to cause the formation of ATP. The third phosphate chemical bond contains the new chemical energy. The ATP then provides energy to some of the other photosynthetic reactions that are causing the conversion of CO2 into sugars.

While the above reactions are proceeding CO2 is diffusing into the chloroplast. In the presence of the enzyme Rubisco, one molecule of CO2 is combined with one molecule of RuBP, and the first product of this reaction is two molecules of PGA.

The PGA then participates in a cycle of reactions that result in the production of the sugars and in the regeneration of RuBP. The RuBP is then available to accept another molecule of CO2 and to make more PGA.

    The wavelengths of sunlight between 400nm and 700nm are the wavelengths that are absorbed by chlorophyll and that drive photosynthesis.

Energy Incident on a Leaf

  • 75% is evaporated
  • 15% is reflected
  • 5% is transmitted through the leaf
  • 4% is converted to heat energy
  • 1% is used in photosynthesis

How do we know the O2 is derived from H2O during photosynthesis?

  • 18 O is a heavy isotope of oxygen
  • H2 18 O + CO2 yields 18 O2
  • H2O+C 18 02 yields O2

How do we know what the first products of photosynthesis are?

14 C is a radioactive isotope of carbon. 14 CO2 is exposed for a brief period to a green plant that is conducting a photosynthesis in the presence of sunlight. Immediately after exposure to 14 CO2, the plant's photosynthetic tissue is killed by immersing it in boiling alcohol, and all of the biochemical reactions cease. The chemical compounds in the dead tissue are all extracted and studied to determine which of them possesses the 14 C. Following the briefest exposure to 14 CO2, the only chemical compound that possessed 14 C was PGA (phosphoglyceric acid, a three carbon molecule). Following longer periods of exposure, much of the 14 C was found in a variety of compounds including glucose. By varying the length of the exposure period it was possible to identify the sequence of the reactions leading from PGA to glucose.

This research was conducted by Prof. Melvin Calvin and his colleagues at the Univ. of California, Berkeley. Calvin received the Nobel Prize for this work.




Cellular Respiration:

Glucose (a sugar):

Respiration is the opposite of photosynthesis, and is described by the equation:

Simply stated, this equation means that oxygen combines with sugars to break molecular bonds, releasing the energy (in the form of ATP) contained in those bonds. In addition to the energy released, the products of the reaction are carbon dioxide and water.

In eukaryotic cells, cellular respiration begins with the products of glycolysis being transported into the mitochondria. A series of metabolic pathways (the Krebs cycle and others) in the mitochondria result in the further breaking of chemical bonds and the liberation of ATP. CO2 and H2O are end products of these reactions. The theoretical maximum yield of cellular respiration is 36 ATP per molecule of glucose metabolized.

** Note that photosynthesis is a reduction-oxidation reaction, just like respiration (see the primer on redox reactions from the lecture on Microbes). In respiration energy is released from sugars when electrons associated with hydrogen are transported to oxygen (the electron acceptor), and water is formed as a byproduct. The mitochondria use the energy released in this oxidation in order to synthesize ATP. In photosynthesis, the electron flow is reversed, the water is split (not formed), and the electrons are transferred from the water to CO2 and in the process the energy is used to reduce the CO2 into sugar. In respiration the energy yield is 686 kcal per mole of glucose oxidized to CO2, while photosynthesis requires 686 kcal of energy to boost the electrons from the water to their high-energy perches in the reduced sugar -- light provides this energy.

Photosynthesis Equation

What are these groups of reactions. The reactants of photosynthesis are carbon dioxide and water meaning during photosynthesis carbon dioxide and water are taken in to create energy.

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The following diagram represents what occurs in the light reactions.

Photosynthesis equation. Every living organism needs energy to survive and photosynthesis is how plants capture the energy they require. Water molecules are also produced during the chemical stage of photosynthesis as the following complete equation reveals. Lets see i have two n hydrogens here.

Study the general equation for photosynthesis and be able to indicate in which process each reactant is used and each product is produced. A simple word equation that can be used to describe the process of photosynthesis is carbon dioxide water glucose oxygen. So this right here isnt so different than what i wrote up here in my first overview of how we always imagined photosynthesis in our heads.

First photosynthesis provides the energy that is used by all other organisms to survive. Photosynthesis is the process used by plants algae and certain bacteria to harness energy from sunlight and turn it into chemical energy. The formula for photosynthesis is 6co2 6h2o light energy c6h12o6 6o2.

Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms activities. Explanation this equation basically is a chemical representation of photosynthesis in a reaction form which takes place in the chloroplasts. 6co 2 6h 2 o c 6 h 12 o 6 6o 2 sunlight energy.

Photosynthesis is the process whereby plants using light energy from the sun convert carbon dioxide and water to glucose sugar and oxygen gas through a series of reactions. The letter a in the equation is a variable and h 2 a. 6co2 6h2o sunlight energy c6h12o6 6o2 photosynthesis can be represented using a chemical equation.

Photosynthesis is the process that plants use to combine light water and carbon dioxide to make glucose for energy and release oxygen. Carbon dioxide water light energy glucose oxygen. 6co 2 12h 2 o light c 6 h 12 o 6 6o 2 6h 2 o this means that 6 molecules of carbon dioxide and twelve molecules of water are used together with the sunlight to produce glucose six molecules of oxygen and six molecules of water.

Equation 6 co 2 6 h 2 o c 6 h 12 o 6 6 o 2. Photosynthesis formula photosynthesis is a process where green plants use light energy carbon dioxide and water to produce glucose oxygen and water. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants and some bacteria use solar energy to produce sugar.

Translated as 6 molecules of carbon dioxide react w. The chemical formula is 6co2 6h2o light energy c6h12o6 6o2. In short light energy is converted into chemical energy the glucose for use in the plants.

Sun water and carbon dioxide are the ingredients used in the equation. This process converts light energy to chemical energy which is stored in the sugars. This chemical process is a fundamental equation for understanding how photosynthesis compliments respiration.

Photosynthesis also has an equation. Photosynthesis is the conversion of carbon dioxide and water to synthesize nutrition energy in the presence of sunlight whilst releasing oxygen as a byproduct. This process is important for two reasons.

Sun water and carbon dioxide are the ingredients used in the equation. The equation for photosynthesis states that the combination of carbon dioxide water and light energy produces a carbohydrate glucose and oxygen. The chemical equation of photosynthesis msu.

Plants take in carbon dioxide and water to produce glucose a sugar and oxygen. The overall balanced equation is. List the two major processes of photosynthesis and state what occurs in those sets of reactions.

The direct products of the light reactions and the calvin cycle are 3 phosphoglycerate and g3p two different forms of a 3 carbon sugar molecule. The photosynthesis equation is a chemical representation of the process of photosynthesis which takes place in the chloroplasts. The overall equation for photosynthesis is.

The chemical equation for photosynthesis is. Cellular respiration uses glucose and oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water. The reactants of cellular respiration are glucose sugar and oxygen these are taken in by animals and humans to produce energy.

Photosynthesis is the process in plants and certain other organisms that uses the energy from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose a sugar and oxygen. Carbon dioxide water light energy gives a carbohydrate oxygen. Although the chemical equation appears straight forward the process actually involves several steps occurring in two major groups of reactions.

To emphasize this point even more the equation for photosynthesis is the opposite of cellular respiration. Co 2 carbon dioxide h 2 o water light energy is required c 6 h 12 o 6 glucose o 2 oxygen. The chemical equation for photosynthesis involves the input reactants of carbon dioxide water and sunlight to produce the outputs products of glucose and oxygen.

In words the equation translates to the combining of water carbon dioxide and light energy to produce glucose and oxygen. Photosynthesis involves the use of energy from sunlight water and carbon dioxide to produce glucose and oxygen. Balanced photosynthesis chemical equation carbon dioxide water and radiant energy is present on the reactant side whereas on the other side are the products of photosynthesis process ie glucose and oxygen.

What is the formula for photosynthesis for kids. Photosynthesis derived from the greek words photo meaning light and synthesis putting together is a process used by plants and some bacteria to harness the energy from sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide to produce sugar glucose and oxygen. To be more precise photosynthesis is carried out in the chloroplasts with the help of chlorophyll pigments.

This chemical energy is stored in carbohydrate molecules such as sugars which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water hence the name photosynthesis from the greek fs phos light and synoesis. In order to make this equation balance lets see i have n carbons so i need n carbons there. In summary photosynthesis is a process in which light energy is converted to chemical energy and used to produce organic compounds.

6 co2 12 h2o light c6h12o6 6 h2o 6 o2 water molecules are present on the reagent side as well on the product side of the equation. The chemical equation for photosynthesis is 6co2 plus 6h2o plus light energy in the form of sunlight that is traped during light dependent reactions in the chlorophyll of the leaf and releases c6h12o6 and 6o2. The balanced equation for photosynthesis is.

The equation is given as below. Two hydrogens and i have n there so i need two n hydrogens here. Photosynthesis can be represented using a chemical equation.

Now back to the definition earlier you learned that photosynthesis is the process by which plants make their own food. The equation below is the same as the one above but it shows the chemical formula for carbon dioxide water glucose and oxygen. Two of these molecules combined equals one glucose molecule the product seen in the photosynthesis equation.

Notice that the suns light energy is needed to start this portion. Photosynthesis consists of two stages the light reactions and the dark reactions. In plants photosynthesis typically occurs within the chloroplasts located in plant leaves.

What Is the Equation of Photosynthesis?

The formula for photosynthesis is 6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy = C6H12O6 + 6O2. In words, the equation translates to the combining of water, carbon dioxide and light energy to produce glucose and oxygen.

Photosynthesis is a complex natural process that takes place when plants convert sunlight into energy. In addition to taking place in all plant species, photosynthesis is carried out by some algae and bacteria. The energy produced by photosynthesis is a type of chemical energy that is then used to fuel basic life functions such as growth and reproduction.

The Process of Photosynthesis

To perform photosynthesis, plants require three elements. In addition to sunlight, they need carbon dioxide and water. Photosynthesis involves multiple chemical reactions that happen in a series, so that the end result of one chemical reaction supports the next reaction. The process begins when plants absorb water, usually through their roots. Next, they absorb carbon dioxide from the air. Sunlight is absorbed in the final stage of photosynthesis. Depending on the type of plant and the environment in which they live, plants have slightly different adaptations for carrying out photosynthesis. While most plants absorb water through their roots, root systems vary in species that live in different physical settings. Plants that live in the desert, for instance, have a special root structure to absorb water. Other plants, like lily pads, have unique structures to help collect water. Plants can absorb carbon dioxide from pores in their roots, flowers, leaves, branches and stems. The last stage in the photosynthesis process involves taking in sunlight. As plants absorb sunlight, a chemical reaction takes place where molecules of carbon dioxide and water are broken down. This creates carbohydrates, or glucose, which is sugar that the plants can store and use later for energy. The other end product of this phase is oxygen, which plants release back into the atmosphere.

Benefits of Photosynthesis

In addition to helping plants, photosynthesis is one of the most important biological functions on the planet. It affects life on Earth and even many facets of society. Since humans and other animals cannot make their own food, they rely on photosynthesis to sustain plants, which in turn provide sustenance for other organisms in the food chain. Photosynthesis also produces oxygen as a byproduct, which is essential for human life and the life of many other organisms. As they take in carbon dioxide, plants also ingest other gases in the atmosphere, including pollutants. The only gas that they release, however, is oxygen, which in turn means that they help to clean and purify the air. Plants and microorganisms also play a role in soil remediation, which involves using plants to capture and eliminate harmful toxins in the soil. Photosynthesis also enables the growth of critical food supplies and cash crops in countries around the world.

Plants also have a vital role in the fields of health and medicine. Many modern medicines are created from plants. Foxglove, for example, contains chemicals that are used to treat heart failure. Aloe alleviates symptoms of burns, and other medications combat headaches, certain types of cancer and other ailments.

Trees and plants can also reduce energy bills for homeowners, as the shade that they provide cools homes and can lower the cost of an energy bill.

Photosynthetic Factory

For a majority of plants, leaves act as photosynthetic factories. As such, they are well suited for all processes of photosynthesis. Like solar panels, leaves, for the most part, are thin and broad with the broad part of the leaf facing the sun. This allows for maximum light interception.

Plants have been shown to re-orient their leaves in a manner that ensures maximal light interception during the day. This ensures that sufficient light energy is collected for photosynthesis.

Apart from the general shape of the leaf and the ability to re-orient, some of the other leaf structures involved in photosynthesis include:

Photosynthesis Label

This activity was designed for remote learning during the 2020 pandemic, though it is based off a similar worksheet that students would complete in class.

Remote learning makes it more challenging for students to do labeling exercises since it can be difficult to annotate text without other apps installed. I made this labeling on Google slides with the image as a background and blocks of texts that can be moved to the correct location (drag-and-drop). Students label the reactants, carbon dioxide and water, then the products, glucose and oxygen. Another slide goes into the details of the light dependent reaction and the Calvin cycle.

This activity is intended to be given after going over photosynthesis and doing the chapter reading. I encourage my students to use outside sources if they are really stuck on the labeling, like their textbook or websites. When grading, I use the paint bucket tool to fill incorrect labels with red, which can allow for students to resubmit and fix the errors.

Ms. Mathisen's Science Class

This lesson is for my SAT level high school biology class. It’s something of a review – the students studied the photosynthetic reaction in their cell biology unit. Here, the goal is both to review the most important aspects of the chemistry and to directly connect the very abstract-feeling photosynthetic equation with observable plant behavior.

It is important to note that this class meets once per week for 2 hour periods. The amount of homework I give for this lesson would be completely excessive for a class that meets daily, but is reasonable for students that have a full 7 days to complete the assignments.

Getting Started
• Do Now: How do plants gain weight? Write your answer in 100 words or less.
• Check homework: randomly call on students to answer questions assigned for homework.
• Discuss the Do Now. What explanations do people have for how plants gain weight? How could we hypothetically do experiments to determine if these ideas are correct?
• Randomly divide the class into groups of 2 students.

Photosynthesis from a Microscopic Perspective
• Write the basic photosynthesis equation (CO2 + H2O –> C6H12O6 +O2). This equation will be a review students, but it will have been several months since they studied this in the cell biology unit.
• Give students the handout Modeling Photosynthesis with Paper Atoms (by Kathleen M. Vandiver, copyright MIT) and the paper atoms. As a class, read through the instructions and answer any questions that arise.
• Carry out Modeling Photosynthesis with Paper Atoms activity.
• As a class, work together to create notes summarizing the information in this activity.

Photosynthesis from a Macroscopic Perspective
• Demonstrate how Elodea (an aquatic plant) will give off oxygen bubbles from the stem when it is in ideal conditions for photosynthesis. Ideal conditions include bright light and a good source of dissolved CO2 (provided by a pinch of baking soda added to the water). Explain that the rate of photosynthesis can be measured by counting the number of oxygen gas bubbles that escape from the stem or by capturing the oxygen in a test tube and measuring the gas level.
• Ask pairs to design a simple experiment investigating photosynthesis that can be carried out using the materials available. Remind students that it is important for all experiments to be controlled and in particular, explain the necessity of using a heat sink if light levels will be the independent variable. Experimental designs should include a question to be answered, a hypothesis, a materials list, a procedure, and a data chart.
• Have each group share their experimental design with the class and get constructive criticism to improve their experiment.
• Carry out experiments. Collect data. Write a brief conclusion.
• Share the experimental results and conclusions with the class.

Watch the video: Photosynthesis (May 2022).